Sources relating to Ghiyath al-Din Kashani, or al-Kashi

This page is being prepared for a conference on Kashani in Kashan in the spring of 2012. The page contains a list of publication in Western languages (and some in Russian) on al-Kashi, with references to the internet whenever available.

Biographical article on Kashani's astronomical work by Petra Schmidl, from Thomas Hockey et al. (eds), The biographical Encyclopaedia of Astronomers, New York, Springer, 2007 (with permission of the publisher, on the website of Mc Gill University, Montreal)
Article Al-Kashi by B.A. Rosenfeld and A.P. Juschkewitch, originally from C.G.Gillispie, ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography,, vol. 7, New York 1973, pp. 255-262.
A.Q. Qorbani, Kashani-nameh, second edition, Tehran 1368 A.H. Solar [in Persian]
IMA56 = F. Sezgin, ed., Al-Kashi: Texts and Studies, Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften, 1998, series Islamic Mathematics and Astronomy, vol. 56.
SIES = E.S. Kennedy, Colleagues and Former Students, Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences, Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1983.

Survey of several works of Kashani:
Mohammad K. Azarian, A summary of the mathematical works of Ghiyath ud-Din Jamshid Kashani, Journal of Recreational Mathematics 29 (1996), 32-42Scan

The following articles are arranged according to his works.

Two letters to his father on scientific life in Samarkand

Miftah al-Hisab (Key of Arithmetic).

Al-risala al-muhitiyya (Treatise on the Circumference of the Circle)

Sullam al-sama (Ladder towards Heaven)

The lost treatise on the sine of one degree

Nuzhat al-Hada'iq (Delight of Gardens)

or Zubdat al-Hada'iq (Essence of Gardens).
This treatise exists in an original Arabic version by Kashani, which he wrote in Kashan in 1416, and to which he made additions in Samarkand in 1426, and in a revised Persian version made by an anonymous astronomer in Istanbul around 1490.
Kashani's original and his additions seem to be extant in various manuscripts and they are printed at the end of a lithograph edition of Kashani's Miftah al-Hisab, Tehran 1888.
Here are scans from the lithograph edition:
scan of Kashani's Nuzhat al-Hada'iq from 1416 (lithograph edition pp. 250-288)
scan of the additions (Ilhaqat) from 1426 (lithograph edition pp. )

The revised Persian version of Kashi's Nuzhat al-Hada'iq was published and translated in E.S. Kennedy's book The Planetary Equatorium of Jamshid Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi, Princeton University Press 1960. This book is in the public domain now.
Scan of the Introduction by E.S. Kennedy
Scans of the Persian manuscript which Kennedy translated:
Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
Scans of Kennedy's English translations of this Persian manuscript:
Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
Kennedy's commentary:
Part 1   Part 2   Part 3 (including indices and bibliography).

The following articles by E.S. Kennedy are mostly based on the revised Persian version of Kashi's Nuzhat al-Hada'iq:

Another treatise on astronomical instruments

E.S. Kennedy, Al-Kashi's Treatise on Astronomical Instruments, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20 (1961), pp. 98-108, reprinted in SIES pp. 394- 404. [With facsimile of the Arabic ms. Leiden, Or. 945, 12r-13r]. Download at

Treatise on depression of the visible horizon

(identified by Dr M. Bagheri)

Mohammad Bagheri, A new treatise by al-Kashi on depression of the visible horizon, in: From China to Paris: 2000 years transmission of the mathematical ideas, ed. Y. Dold et al., Franz Steiner Verlag , Stuttgart, 2002, pp. 357-368, download via the page of articles in English by Mohammad Bagheri.

Khaqani zij