Some sources relating to the history of science in medieval Islamic civilization, which do not seem to be available on the internet elsewhere.

For sources related to al-Biruni, Ibn al-Haytham, al-Khwarizmi, and Jamshid al-Kashi and the Samarkand school, see the special webpages   and

  • S.A. Ali, edition of Abu'l-Wafa' al-Buzjani, Baghdad 1979, Download.
  • A. Anbouba, edition of al-Karaji, al-Badi` fi al-jabr, Beirut 1964, Download.
  • Yvonne Dold-Samplonius, Dissertation: Book of Assumptions by Aqatun (Kitab al-Mafrudat li-Aqatun), Amsterdam 1977.
  • Yvonne Dold-Samplonius, Article: Some remarks on the Book of Assumptions by Aqatun, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 2 no. 2 (1978), pp. 255-263. (A summary of the dissertation). Related to this: "The Geometrical Elements by Archimedes" Kitab fi'l-u.sUl al-handasiyya li-Arshimidis, Hyderabad, Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1948 (source, the manuscript Patna, Bankipore 2468), and " On tangent circles by Archimedes" fi'l-dawA'ir al-mutamAssa li-Arshimidis, Hyderabad, Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1948 (source, the manuscript Patna, Bankipore 2468)
  • Khalil Jaouiche (1925-2002), Na.zariyyat al-mutawAziyAt fi al-handasa al-islAmiyya [The theory of parallel lines in Islamic geometry], Tunis 1988 (in Arabic), download.
    Note that there is also a French version of this book: Khalil Jaouiche, La théorie des parallèles en pays d'Islam, Paris: Vrin, 1986, as far as I know not available online.
  • C. Paul Luckey (1884-1949), Biography and bibliography
  • G.H. Mossaheb, Hakim Omare Khayyam as an Algebraist, Tehran 1960 [in Persian]
  • E.B. Plooij, Dissertation:: Euclid's conception of ratio and his definition of proportional magnitudes as criticized by Arabian commentators, Rotterdam: Uitgeverij W.J. van Hengel, 1950.
  • A. Q. Qorbani, Buzjani-Nameh. Tehran 1371 A.H. solar [in Persian]
  • A.I. Sabra, Arabic edition of al-Khayyam's treatise on the difficulties in Euclid's Elements:
    Risala fi sharh ma ashkala min musaradat kitab Uqlidis, Alexandria 1961.
  • A.S. Saidan, Arabic edition of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's treatise (13th century) on computation [Jawami` al-hisab bi'l-takht wa'l-turab], in Al-Abhath 20 (1967) no. 2, pp. 91-164, no. 3, pp. 213-292, download.
  • A.S. Saidan, Arabic edition of Abd al-Qadir ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi, Al-Takmila fi'l-hisab, Kuwayt 1974, download
  • A.S. Saidan, Arabic edition of Thabit ibn Qurra, Treatise on Amicable Numbers, Amman 1977, download
  • A.S. Saidan, History of Algebra in Medieval Islam: a Comparative Study. Part 1: Algebra in Eastern Islam. Study built upon al-Fakhry of al-Karaji Kuwayt 1985, download
  • C. Schoy, pp. 74-91 of Die Trigonometrischen Lehren des persischen Astronomen ... Al-Biruni (section on the regular heptagon, including German translation of a text attributed to Archimedes)
  • Svami Govinda Tirtha, The nectar of grace: Omar Khayyam's Life and Works, Hyderabad Dn. 1941, download.
  • Saleh Zeki, Athar-e Baqiyeh
  • (Istanbul 1329 H = 1911 CE) (a work in Ottoman Turkish in Arabic script on the history of mathematics in Islamic civilization, based on the author's study of unpublished Arabic manuscripts in the rich libraries of Istanbul).
    Volume 1: Scan.
    Contents of volume 1: pp. 1-20: Preface and introduction. Chapter 1: pp. 21-42: introduction to medieval Islamic trigonometry. The "theorem that dispenses" (shakl mughni) [i.e. that makes Menelaus' transversal theorem superfluous]; pp. 43-65: addition and subtraction formulae; the shadow theorem; pp. 66-84: solving (plane and spherical) triangles. Chapter 2: pp. 85-120: Computation of trigonometrical tables; Abu'l-Wafa.; pp. 121-139: The trigonometrical tables of Ulug Beg and his computation of sin(1), the computation of sin(1) by Qadi Zadeh Rumi; pp. 140-154: Conclusion: later history of trigonometry Appendix: pp. 155-203: Appendix: Bibliographical data of some medieval Islamic mathematicians; pp. 204-207: Errata.

Material on tilings

  • Topkapi Scroll: The splendid facsimile edition with commentary by Gülrü Necipoglu is now available free of charge on the internet on the publisher's website, download
  • Materials related to the anonymous Persian manuscript on tilings, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Persan 169, ff. 180a-199a, can be found in Gülrü Necipoglu, ed., The Arts of Ornamental Geometry: A Persian Compendium on Similar and Complementary Interlocking Figures. A Volume Commemorating Alpay Özdural, Leiden, Brill, 2017). Download the book free of charge.
  • The entire manuscript Paris, BN, Persan 169 is available in a full color digital version (
  • M.S. Bulatov, Geometricheskaya Garmonizatsiya v architekture srednei Azii IX-XV vv., Moscow 1988, Appendix with a translation of the anonymous Persian geometrical manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Persan, Or. 169 ff. 180a-199a. [This was the first serious publication on the Persian manuscript]
    Note that Bulatov's entire book is now available in English: Mitkhat S. Bulatov, Geometric Harmonization in the Architecture of Central Asia: 9th-15th Centuries (Historical - Theoretical Research), Translated from Russian by Liliya Sattarova, Istanbul, IRCICA, 2022. Project Director: Mahmud Erol Kılıç; Contributors to English edition: Ashirbek Muminov, Taha Zahid Özdemir, Zeynep Durukal. Islamic Architecture and Heritage Preservation no. 3. 430 p.: ill., plans (in English) ISBN 978-92-9063-410-2. More information.
  • Modern Persian rendering in Seyyed Alireza Jazbi, Handasa-ye Irani, Tehran 1376 A.H. Solar, scan.
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Jan Hogendijk <>