The website www.albiruni.nl is dedicated to the memory of four outstanding scholars on al-Biruni: Ted (E. S.) Kennedy (1912-2009),   Abdulfattokh Rasulov (1888-1977), Boris Abramovich Rosenfeld (1917-2008),   and Fuat Sezgin (1924-2018).

Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni

(3 Dhu'l-Hijja 362 A.D./ Sept. 4, 973, Kath, in present-day Uzbekistan - 2 Rajab 440 A.H./ Dec. 9, 1048, Ghazni, in present-day Afghanistan)

The purpose of this website is to enable the reader to read al-Biruni's works in the original or in literal translation, so you can read what he had to say in his own words.

For each of al-Biruni's 26 main extant works, the following information is provided: (1) an abbreviated title in CAPITALS, the title in Arabic with translation, and bibliographical references, (2) Arabic editions; (3) Translations into languages other than Arabic; (4) Arabic manuscripts [library, manuscript number, if possible with links to digital versions, (5) some (but by no means all) modern studies. If possible we have added scans or links to sites where the manuscripts or publications can be downloaded, usually free of charge but not always.
In case you have any problem in downloading scans or if links do not work, please use the alternative URL:
http://www.jphogendijk.nl/biruni.html
For an explanation of the abbreviations such as GAS, FANKHA, DENA, RI, IMA, etc, see the List of abbreviations.
We have added a page with online bio-bibliographical resources on al-Biruni
Substantial parts of this website were contributed by the following colleagues and friends: Mr Fariborz Shirazi, Dr Pouyan Rezvani, Dr Mohammad Bagheri, Dr Mojtaba Derayati, Mr Hüseyin Sen,Dr Rob van Gent.
For questions and suggestions please send an email to jphogendijk_at_gmail.com.
The website is necessarily incomplete and may contain errors, for the following reasons: more works may be found in the future in uncatalogued or unstudied manuscripts or libraries; the fragments (category F below) have not been studied and may not be genuine, or may be part of one of the 26 main extant works; not all Arabic manuscript mentioned in this website are available to us, or have been inspected by us or one of our friends.

Al-Biruni's works are presented below in the order of (decreasing) number of Arabic and Persian manuscripts which have been preserved in libraries all over the world. The only exception is Al-Biruni's own list of his works which has been placed at the beginning.

A. Al-Biruni's list of his own works (extant in only one Arabic manuscript, in Leiden, Netherlands).

B1. Works which are extant in ten or more Arabic manuscripts: 1. Introduction to Astrology.   2. The Masudic Canon.   3. Chronology.   4. Full discussion of all possible ways to construct the astrolabe.   5. Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe.

B2. Works which are extant in less than 10 Arabic manuscripts but more than one Arabic manuscript: 6. Mineralogy.   7. Mixed astrolabes = Pearls on the surface of spheres.   8. Chords in the circle.   9. India.   10. Projections of the sphere.   11. Rule of Three in India.   12. Specific gravities.  

B3. Substantial works which are extant in only one Arabic manuscript: 13. Keys to Astronomy.   14. Coordinates (Tahdid nihayat al-amakin).   15. Translation of Yoga Sutra's.   16. Pharmacology.   17. Length of Life according to Indian astrology.   18. Shadows.   19. Transits.   20. On the solar equation.   21. Asymptotes.   22. Translation from the Sanskrit: Ghurrat al-Zijat.   23. Fakhri Sextant.   24. Astrological lots.   25. On the works of Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi.   26. Treatise on facilitating the use of the astrolabe.  

C. Correspondence (letters by al-Biruni or letters to him): C1. Letter to al-Sijzi.   C2. Letter about the Analemma by Habash.   C3. Answers by Ibn Sina to 18 questions by al-Biruni.   C4. Answers by Abu'l-Jud to four questions by al-Biruni.  

F. List of fragments or texts attributed to al-Biruni. Most of these are probably not genuine. F1. Depression of the horizon.   F2. Wisdom of Abu Rayhan. F3. Foundations of Astrology.   F4. Determination of the direction of the qibla.   F5. Treatise on the construction of the astrolabe.   F6. The day, daylight and night.   F7. (astrological) Choices of days.   F8. On the representation of stars and localities in any circle we wish.   F9. The proof of a problem of the book of Archimedes.   F10. Celestial globe.   F11. Treatise on geometry.   F12. Treatise on the astrolabe. F13. Lunar, solar eclipse and arrows.   F14. Book on the quicksilver and book on the Earth.   F15. Commentary on the short poem.   F16. Divine things on the moon.   F17. Letter on the truth of the astrolabe.   L1. Fragment of lost work, on interpolation methods.

N. Works written by his teacher Abu Nasr ibn Iraq in his [al-Biruni's] name and other works by Abu Nasr ibn Iraq.

S. Spurious works and the reasons of their misattribution: Al-Saghani's Projection.   Summary of the Almagest.   Recreation of souls and thoughts on the properties of three created things: minerals and plants and stones.   The decisive criterion in the use of the plane astrolabe.   Discussions with Ibn Sina II.

Online bio-bibliographical resources on al-Biruni   List of abbreviations used in this website (GAS, FANKHA, DENA, RI, IMA etc.);   Information on the transcription system of Arabic words used in this website.

A. Al-Biruni's list of his own works

In 427 H./1035-6 CE, al-Biruni composed a list of works which he had written until he was 63 solar years (that is, 65 lunar years) old. This list is the basis of the standard bibliography by Boilot: Scan   For most of his works, al-Biruni also indicates the number of leaves.
Al-Biruni's list of his own works is an appendix to his treatise on the works of Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi, see below. RI p. 144 E1.

Arabic edition: An Arabic edition of Al-Biruni's list of his own works is found in Sachau's edition of the Chronology pp. xxxviii-xxxxviii. Internet version on gallica.bnf.fr: see first page (from here you can also read the other pages).
The list is also contained in the Arabic edition: P. Kraus, Épitre de Beruni contenant le répertoire des ouvrages de Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Paris 1936, scan, and in the Persian translation by Mohaghghegh, see below.

Translations: German translation in H. Suter and E. Wiedemann, Über al-Biruni und seine Schriften, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften LX, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinische Sozietät zu Erlangen Band 52-53 (1920-21), 55-96, reprinted in Wiedemann, Aufsätze, vol. 2, pp. 474-515, and in IMA 34. Scan.
Persian translation: Fehrest ketabha-ye Razi wa-namha-ye ketabha-ye Biruni, tashih wa-tarjome wa-ta`liq Mehdi Mohaghghegh, Tehran 1371 A.H. (solar)/ 1992-3, Entesharat Daneshgah-e Tehran no. 1406/3232, scan (of pp. 1-74 only). Contents: III-VI - Introduction / pp. 1-42 , arabic text / pp. 43-74 , persian translation / pp. 76-110 , arabic text of al-Mushata by Gazanfar / pp. 111-188 , persian commentry on al-Biruni's Risala / pp. 189-206 , persian abstract of al-Mushata of Gazanfar / pp. 207-237 , index / ; There is a short introduction and abstract of Gazanfar's al-Mushata in english in 9 pages .
Uzbek translation: Abu Rayhon Beruniyning uz asarlariga uzi tuzgan ruyhati. A. Rasulov tarjimasi, in Beruniy. Tughilgan kunining 1000 yilligiga. Mas'ul muharrir U.I. Karimov va A. Irisov. Tashkent 1977, pp. 230-243. [not seen]

Arabic manuscript: Leiden, Or. 133/2, digitized by Brill Publishers (Leiden). You can see one full page of the manuscript by drawing the photo to your desktop. You can purchase access to the Brill online primary sources collections for one day and then download all the manuscripts you want.
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B1. Works which are extant in ten or more Arabic manuscripts

1. INTRODUCTION TO ASTROLOGY, kitAb tafhIm li-awA'il .sinA`at al-tanjIm, Book of Instruction in the First Principles of the Art of Astrology. GAS VII, 189 no. 1. RI p. 148-149 no. A2, (Arabic version, main information), RI p. 149 no. A3 (Persian version), RI p. 145 M2 (mathematical part), RI p. 154 no. G2 (geographical part). Boilot no. 73 (cat. I no. 1, number of leaves not indicated). Ghas/Pay p. 359 (Arabic), p. 358 (Persian). DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701).
Elementary introduction to mathematics, astronomy, astrology, written for a teenage daughter of a dignitary, in the form of questions and answers. Al-Biruni wrote the work in a Persian and in an Arabic version. For a modern 21-th century audience this work is still the best introduction to medieval Islamic mathematics, astronomy and astrology, written by a master. See FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905, where it is stated that the Arabic version was written in 421 A.H. (lunar)/1030-1 CE, as a later revision of the original Persian version.

Arabic edition: Facsimile edition of the Arabic manuscript London, British Library Or. 8349 [the same which is now also available online in a coloured digital edition, see below]: in R. Ramsay Wright: The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology by al-Biruni. London 1934, reprinted IMA 29, 1998.
Online version (Halle, Germany) which can also be downloaded (120 MB).
A critical edition of the Arabic text by Keiji Yamamoto and Michio Yano is in progress.

Persian editions: Jalal al-Din Huma'i, Tehran 1319 A.H. solar (1940 CE), reprint Tehran: Babak, 1362 A.H. solar (1983 CE), with a long introduction on life and works of Biruni. Download here (archive.org)   or here.

Translations: English translation, based on a Persian manuscript, in R. Ramsay Wright: The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology by al-Biruni. London 1934, reprinted IMA 29, 1998. Scan (archive.org) Another scan (Halle, Germany) which can also be downloaded (large file, 120 MB).
Russian translation: Abu Rayhan Beruni. Kniga vrazumleniya nachatkam nauki o zvyozdah, per. i prim. B.A. Rozenfeld, A. Ahmedov.... Tashkent: Fan, 1975, Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia vol. 6, Tashkent: Fan, 1975. Digital version (astro-cabinet.ru). A djv-file of the Russian translation can also be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 6.
See pp. 46-47 of the Russian translation on the manuscripts that were used.
Italian translation by Claucio Cecotti, 1994-2018, download here (with thanks to the translator Dr. Cecotti!)
Tajik translation: Aburayhoni Beruni. Kitob-ut-tafhim li awoili sanoat-it-tanjim, bo choptayorkunandagon: A. Devonaqulov, J. Mamedova, G. Sobirov, muallifoni tavzehot B.A. Rozenfeld va G. Sobirov. Dushanbe 1973. scan. [IGAIW]
Japanese translation of the first 205 Chapters: Keiji Yamamoto and Michio Yano, Abu Isuhaku Muhanmado ibun Ahumado aru-Biruni Cho, Senseijutsu Kyotei no Sho, majalla dirAsAt al-`Alam al-'islAmI 5 nos. 1, 2 (February 2012), pp. 299-356.

Arabic manuscripts: see GAS VII, 189, Ghas-Pay vol. 1 p. 358-9:

  • Istanbul, Millet, Feyzullah 1333, 347 f.
  • Istanbul, Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III, 3477
  • Istanbul, Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III, 3478
  • Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Ahlwardt 5665 = Petermann 67   digital version (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin) another link
  • Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Ahlwardt 5666 = Landberg 63,  digital version (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)   another link
  • London, British Library Or. 8349 (not mentioned in GAS VII). digital version (Qatar Digital Library)
  • Oxford Or. I 221
  • Oxford Or II 262
  • Dublin, Chester Beatty Arabic 3910
  • Paris, B.N. Arabe 2497, an incomplete manuscript, digital version
  • Tehran, Majlis, 162, see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905.
  • Tehran, Sepahsalar 665, according to FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905 (RI and ISMI gives Sepahsalar 772)
  • Tabriz, Milli Tabriz, 3440, see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905.
  • Meshed Razawi 5472, see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905.
  • Tehran, Milli 2781, see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 905. (not mentioned in GAS). Digital version may be available through http://opac.nlai.ir/opac-prod/bibliographic/809196 (link should work but does not work)
  • Tehran, Daneshgah 3093 (not mentioned in GAS, see DENA; not mentioned in FANKHA)
  • Rabat 99; ISMI mentioned Rabat, National Lib. et Archive, manuscripts 439, is this the same?
  • Rabat D 2060
  • Rabat, Jalawi 22/1
  • Aligarh Maulana Azad Library, Subhanallah 520/11 (not mentioned in GAS)
  • Aligarh, Maulana Azad Library, University 17 (not mentioned in GAS);
  • Jerusalem National and University Library, 282 (not mentioned in GAS)
  • Princeton, Princeton University, Garrett (Yehuda section) 4690
  • St. Petersburg Nat. ANS 600/15

According to King, Survey, p. 48, there are no manuscripts of this work in Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, but only photos of manuscripts in Dublin, CB 3910, Istanbul, Topkapi 3477, Paris, B.N. Ar. 2497.

Persian manuscripts:

  • Istanbul, Nuruosmaniye 2780, 1 c (195 ff.)
  • Istanbul, Feyzullah Efendi 1333 (according to FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904)
  • London, Add. 7697 (mentioned by ISMI)
  • Manchester, Lindesiana Bibliotheca 700
  • Paris, B.N. Persan 49
  • Paris, B.N. Persan 774
  • Tehran, Majlis 2132. A bound copy of this ms. is preserved under number [QB 23] in the library of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation, Tehran.
  • Tehran, Milli, 2092, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904. Digital version available through http://opac.nlai.ir/opac-prod/bibliographic/814401 (link may not always work). Link to digital version http://dl.nlai.ir/UI/4035519a-85ba-4369-b635-5640b8aace83/Catalogue.aspx
  • Tehran, SepahsAlAr, 664, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904/
  • Tehran, Malik 3254, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904/
  • Tehran, Daneshgah, 3752/3, the last part of this work, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904/
  • Tehran, Danesghah 3722, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904.
  • Tehran, Majlis, 2131, DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904.
  • Meshed, Razawi 5473, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904.
  • Meshed, Razawi 12134, see DENA vol. 3, p. 206 (pdf version p. 2701) and FANKHA vol. 8 p. 904.
  • Tashkent Institute of Oriental Studies 445/1
  • Tashkent Institute of Oriental Studies 3423
  • Aligarh University 44
  • Aligarh University 45
  • Madras Firuz 2/2
  • Madras Suppl. 93
  • Madras Suppl. 95
  • Mumbay, Cama Oriental Institute, Mulla Firuz 2 (ISMI)
  • Mumbay, Cama Oriental Institute, Mulla Firuz Sup. 93 (ISMI)
  • Mumbay, Cama Oriental Institute, Mulla Firuz Sup. 95 (ISMI)
  • Jaipur, Maharaja Man Singh Library, no. 7
  • Dushanbe 315
  • A manuscript of the Persian version, written in 593 A.H. / 1197 CE, is in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, see photos of some pages in Sharifah Shifa al-Attas, Istac illuminated. A pictorial tour of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC) Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur (International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC, 1998, pp. 134-137) [available here on www.islamicmanuscripts.info]

Studies:
E. Wiedemann, Über die Zeichen für die Planeten usw. auf Astrolabien, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 19 (1910), pp. 145-46, reprinted in IMA 34 pp. 48-49, scan.
E. Wiedemann, Über die Dimensionen der Erde nach muslimischen Gelehrten, Archive für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik 3 (1911), pp. 250-255, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 50-55 (See the last part), scan.
E. Wiedemann, &Uumn;ber den indischen Kreis, Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften 11 (1912), pp. 252-255, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 56-59, scan.
E. Wiedemann, Geographisches von al-Biruni, in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften XXVII, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät in Erlangen 44 (1912), pp. 1-26, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 69-94. (includes translations of the geographical parts of the Introduction to Astrology) scan.
E. Wiedemann, Über die Wage des Wechselns von al-Chazini und über die Lehre von den Proportionen nach al-Biruni, in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften XLVIII, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät in Erlangen 48-49 (1916-17), pp. 1-15, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 133-148. scan (only the pages relating to al-Biruni).

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2. MASUDIC CANON al-qAnUn al-mas`UdI, the Canon for Mas`ud. GAS VI, 265 no. 1. RI p. 147-8 no. A1, p. 145 no. M1 (third Book only), p. 154 no. G1 (fifth Book only). Boilot no. 104. Ghas-Pay p. 869, DENA vol. 8 p. 44 (pdf version p. 8877). In al-Biruni's own list of works, he mentions this as one of the works on which he is still working, but does not indicate the number of leaves.
This is al-Biruni's main astronomical work, similar in scope to the Almagest of Ptolemy (ca. 150 CE), and more than 1300 pages long in the Arabic edition. The work is divided into an introduction and 11 Books.

Arabic edition:
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni: Al-Qanunu'l-Mas'udi (Canon Masudicus) Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, 1954-1956 A.D./1373-1375 A.H., 3 vols.
Good scans of the Hyderabad volumes on archive.org: volume 1   volume 2   volume 3. These volumes were from the library of Willy Hartner, see the information.
Other scans of the Hyderabad volumes (copies from Pakistan, archive.org): Volume 1   Volume 2   Volume 3.
Scans with all the "Books" of the Masudic Canon in separate pdf files (with thanks to my colleague Dr Rob van Gent):
Al-Biruni's dedication and table of contents;   Book 1   Book 2   Book 3   Book 4   Book 5   Book 6   Book 7   Book 8   Book 9   Book 10   Book 11.   Note that in Book 8, there is no page numbered 891; the text of p. 890 continues on p. 892.
The Hyderabad edition adds indices to the Masudic Canon, and each of the three volumes includes an introductory article in English and front matter in Arabic: Volume 1, introduction and front matter;   Volume 2, introduction and front matter;   Volume 3, introduction and front matter.  
Other links to the three volumes integrally: Volume 1,   Volume 2,   Volume 3.
Another Arabic edition: Al-Biruni, Al-Qanun al-Mas`udi, ed. Abd al-Karim Sami al-Jundi, Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-`ilmiyya, 2002, 3 vols. (apparently an exact reprint of the Hyderabad edition with a nicer typesetting)
Arabic edition of Book III only: Abu-r-Rayhan al-Biruni, Al-maqala al-thalitha min al-Qanun al-Mas`udi, tahqiq Imam Ibrahim Ahmad, Cairo 1395 H. (1965)
Arabic edition of Book V, Chapters 9 and 10 in pp. 1-53 of A.Zeki Validi Togan, Biruni's Picture of the World, Delhi 1941.

Translations:
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 5; Part 1 (Books 1-5) tr. and comm. Bulgakov, Rozenfeld, Tashkent: Fan, 1973, Part 2 (Books 6-11), tr. and comm. B.A. Rozenfeld, A.A. Akhmedov, Tashkent: Fan, 1976.
The two parts can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 5, Part 1, Knigi 1-5, and Part 2, Knigi 6-11.
Digital version of Ch. 1 in Part 1 (astro-cabinet.ru)
Uzbek translation: Abu Raihon Beruniy, Qonuni Mas'udiy (1-5 maqolalar). Tarjimon A. Rasulov, izohlarni A. Ahmedov va A. Rasulov tuzgan. Tanlangan asarlar. 5, 1-k. Toshkent 1973; Abu Raihon Beruniy, Qonuni Mas'udiy (6-11 maqolalar). Tarjimon A. Rasulov, mahsus muharrir, suz va kursatgichlar muallifi A. Ahmedov, izohlarni A. Ahmedov va B.A.Rozenfel'd tuzgan. Tanlangan asarlar. 5, 2-k. Toshkent 1976. scan (large file, 100 MB) [IGAIW]
The work has not yet been integrally translated into a Western language.
Translation of the table of contents (titles of all the chapters of all 11 Books of the Masudic Canon) in E.S. Kennedy, Al-Biruni's Mas`udic Canon, Al-Abhath 24 (1974), 59-81, reprinted in SIES 573-595.

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Arabe 5840, 501 H., digital version (gallica.bnf.fr).
  • Istanbul Beyazit Veliuddin 2277, 313 ff. before 536 H, Krause 479, see Hyderabad ed., vol. 1, p. 17.
  • Istanbul Carullah 1498, 402 ff. 531 H, Krause p. 479, see Hyderabad ed. vol. 1, p. 19
  • Istanbul Askeri Müze unnumbered, (according to Rosenfeld and Ihsanoglu and ISMI the manuscript number is 462) ca. 400 ff. before 532 H, Krause p. 479. A bound copy of this manuscript is in the library of Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation, Tehran/
  • Istanbul Kandilli Rasathanesi unnumbered, 1147 H, Krause p. 479
  • According to Turkish authorities, also Istanbul, Nuruosmaniye 3026, 217b-256b
  • Konya Yusuf Aga 1797, 6th century H. This is the same as Konya Karatay Yusufaga Kütüphanesi, 42 Yu 6695 (nr. 206083 in www.yazmalar.gov.tk).
  • Berlin Ahlwardt 5667 = Or. Oct. 275, 318 ff. 1250 H   digital version (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)
  • Berlin Ms. Or. Quart. 1613, 239 ff, 552 H, incomplete, Krause p. 480,   Digital version (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)
  • Tübingen, Orient Quart 1213, Ex-Berlin Preussische Staatsbibliothek, old nr. 213, dated 562 H. (proveance: Calcutta, whence it was acquired in 1927), see Hyderabad ed., vol. 1, p. 18. Not mentioned in GAS VI.
  • Photo of an unidentified manuscript of the Qanun Mas'udi in Berlin in the Pergamom Museum in 2007
  • London British Library Or. 1997, 262 ff, 570 H. Kat. Suppl. p. 576, see Hyderabad edition vol. 1, p. 21. Digital version (Qatar digital library)
  • Oxford Bodl. 516, 161 ff. 475 H., only Books I-VI, see Nicoll p. 360-363, see Hyderabad edition vol. 1, p. 14.
  • Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, mIqAt 866 (673 H), see Hyderabad edition vol. 1 p. 22, King, Survey, p. 48.
  • Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, mIqAt 874, a fragment, 121 folii, see King, Survey, p. 48. King, Survey p. 237 plate XVII is a page of one of the Cairo manuscripts.
  • Rampur, riyA.d 276 (Kat. I, 64)
  • Hayderabad, A.safiya, riyA.d 372 (Kat III, 336), ISIM gives the number as 374.
  • Bombay, Molla Firuz, R. 1. 65 (332 ff., 11th c. H)
  • Yazd (see Nasriya IV, 448, DENA vol. 9 p. 44, pdf version 8877, FANKHA vol. 24 p. 784, Ghas-Pay p. 869); according to Ghas-Pay this is Ms. 64/15 of majmu`a Haj Shaykh `Ali `Ulumi, only a fragment of Book 9 of the Qanun. This ms. is now in Tehran.
  • Isfahan? See Hyderabad ed., vol. 1, p. 15. Not mentioned in GAS VI, nor in DENA.
  • Tehran, Majlis library, 5499/15, only Book 2 of the Qanun (see DENA vol. 9 p. 44, pdf version 8877, FANKHA vol. 24 p. 784, Ghas-Pay p. 869).
  • Tehran, Minami, Mujtaba ms. 339 part 3, 85 ff. (see DENA vol. 9 p. 44, pdf version 8877).
  • Meshed 5588, 311 ff. 1098 H, Kat. VIII, 253, apparently an incomplete manuscript (see DENA vol. 9 p. 44, pdf version 8877, FANKHA vol. 24 p. 784), compare also Ghas-Pay p. 869,
  • Meshed Razawi 12292, 4th century H., 237 ff, (see DENA vol. 9 p. 44, pdf version 8877, FANKHA vol. 24 p. 783).

Studies, containing partial translations (the list is far from complete):
Chapter 6 of Book 2 in E.S. Kennedy, Susan Engle and Jeanne Wamstad, The Hindu Calendar as described in al-Biruni's Masudic Canon, Journal for Near Eastern Studies, available online via http://www.jstor.org/stable/543129
German translation of Book 3: C. Schoy, Die trigonometrischen Lehren des Persischen astronomen Abu'l-Raihan Muh. ibn Ahmad al-Biruni dargestellt nach al-Qanun al-Mas`udi. Nach dem Tode des Verfassers herausgegeben von Julius Ruska und Heinrich Wieleitner. Hannover 1927. Scans: part 1,   part 2 (only the part on al-Biruni is included)
Chapters 6-7 of Book 3: E.S. Kennedy, The motivation of al-Biruni's second order interpolation scheme, Proceedings of the First International Symposium for the History of Arabic Science, April 5-12, 1976 (Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Ghada Karmi, and Nizar Namnum, eds.), 2 vols., Aleppo (Institute for the History of Arabic Science) 1978, vol. I (Arabic), pp. 381-388, vol. 2, pp. 67-71. English version reprinted: SIES, pp. 630-634.
On Chapters 3 and 5 of Book 3: see also the two notes by C. Schoy, Al-Biruni's method of approximation of chord 40, and Al-Biruni's computation of the value of pi, American Mathematical Monthly 33 (1926), pp. 95-96, pp. 323-325. available on JSTOR https://www.jstor.org/stable/2300072 and https://www.jstor.org/stable/2300202, reprinted in IMA 35, pp. 155-156, 157-159.
Chapter 8 of Book 4: Karl Schoy, Die Bestimmung der geographischen Breite der Stadt Gazna, mittles Beobachtungen im Meridian, durch den arabischen Astronomen und Geographen al-Biruni, Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen Meteorologie 23 (1925), pp. 41-47, reprinted in IMA 35, pp. 147-153, scan.
Chapters 9 and 10 of Book 4: J. Hell, E. Wiedemann, Geographisches aus dem mas`udischen Kanon von al-Beruni, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften XXIX, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät in Erlangen 44 (1912), pp. 119-125, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 109-115, scan.
Chapter 15 of Book 4: E.S. Kennedy, Al-Biruni on determining the meridian, Mathematics Teacher 66 (1963), 635-637, reprinted SIES 618-620
Chapter 9 of Book 5: English translation in A. Dallal, Al-Biruni on Climates, Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences 34 (1985), 3-18.
English translation of Chapter 2, Book 6: J.H. Kramers, Al-Biruni's determination of geographical longitude by measuring the distances, Al-Biruni commemoration volume A.H. 362 - A.H. 1362, Calcutta 1951, pp. 177-193, reprinted in IMA 36, pp. 97-113, scan.
Chapters 7-8 of Book 6: W. Hartner, M. Schramm, Al-Biruni and the theory of solar apogee: an example of originality in Arabic Science, in A.C. Crombie, ed., Scientific Change, Symposium on the history of science, Oxford 9-15 July 1961, pp. 206-218, scan.
German translation of Chapter 9, Book 8: E. Wiedemann, Über die verschiedenen, bei der Mondfinsternis auftretenden Farben nach Biruni, Jahrbuch für Photographie und Reproduktionstechnik (Halle, Germany) 1914, pp. 3-8, reprinted in Wiedemann, GS, vol. 2, pp. 792-797 and in IMA 34, 127-132, scan.
German translation of Chapter 13 of Book 8 and part of Chapter 11 of Book 8: E. Wiedemann, Über Erscheinungen bei der Dämmerung und bei Sonnenfinsternis nach arabischen Quellen, Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin (Leipzig, Germany) 15 (1923), pp. 43-52, reprinted in Wiedemann, GS, vol. 1, 1092-1101, IMA 34, 251-260. The parts on al-Biruni are pp. 43-46 (dawn and dusk, scan.) and pp. 50-52 (colors of solar eclipses scan.)
Translation of most of Chapter 5 of Book 11 in J.P. Hogendijk, Al-Biruni on the Computation of Primary Progression (tasyir), pp. 279-307 in: Charles Burnett and Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum, eds., From Masha'allah to Kepler. Theory and Practice in Medieval and Renaissance Astrology. Ceredigion (Wales), Sophia Centre Press 2015, ISBN 978-1-907767-06-7.   Download.

Geographical coordinates from the Mas'udic Canon are contained the Geography (taqwIm al-buldAn) of abu'l-fi.dA isma`Il ibn `alI (1273-1331), the governor of Hama. Arabic edition: Géographie d'Aboulféda, texte arabe ... par M. Reinaud et M. le B. Mac Guckin de Slane, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1840, download. There is also a French translation Géographie d' Aboulféda ... par M. Reinaud et S. Guyard / Paris : Imprimerie nationale, 1848, and Géographie d' Aboulféda ... Tome II, 2e partie, Fin de la traduction ... et index général .. par M. Stanislas Guyard,... / Paris : Imprimerie nationale , 1883. See E.S. and M.H. Kennedy, Geographical Coordinates of Localities from Islamic Sources, Frankfurt, Institut für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 1987.

See also: J. Len Berggren, The Origin of al-Biruni's Method of the Zijes in the Theory of Sundials. Centaurus 28 (1985) pp. 1-16; J. Len Berggren, Medieval Analemmas for Determining the Qibla, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 4 (1980), 69-80.


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3. CHRONOLOGY, al-AthAr al-bAqiya min al-qurUn al-khAliya, the remaining traces of the centuries that have passed. GAS VI, 270 no. 16. RI p. 144 no. E1. Boilot no. 105. DENA vol. 1 p. 13 (pdf version p. 138), FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32. In his list of works, written in 1034, al-Biruni mentions the Chronology among the works in progress, although the version we have was dated by Sachau on good grounds to around 1000 CE.

Arabic edition: Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, Al-Athar al-Baqiyah `ani l-Qurun al-Xaliyah (The Vestiges of the Past) The Chronology of Ancient Nations, Edited and annotated by Parviz Azkaei (parvIz adhkA'I), Tehran, Miras-e Maktub, 2001. Arabic edition with notes in Persian and indices; based on the three manuscripts Istanbul Umumi no. 4667; Istanbul Seray, Ahmet III, 3043; Edinburgh University Library no. 161 (which was the source of the manuscripts used by Sachau)
Older Arabic edition: C. Eduard Sachau, Chronologie orientalischer Völker von Alberuni, Leipzig 1878. This was based on the manuscripts Paris B.N. 1489, London British Library Add 7491 and probably London British Library Or 1495 (then in a private library of Rawlinson). Digital version on gallica.bnf.fr http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k72901q, also on www.archive.org   here, and from the University Library in Halle (Germany) here.
Some parts of the text that were missing in Sachau's edition were added (on the basis of Istanbul manuscripts) in: Karl Garbers, Eine Ergänzung zur Sachauschen Ausgabe von Al-Biruni's Chronologie orientalischer Völker, Der Islam 30 (1952), pp. 39-80 , also in Documenta Islamica Inedita (Richard Hartmann Festschrift), Berlin, Akademie Verlag 1952, pp. 45-68.
J. Fück: Sechs Ergänzungen zu Sachaus Ausgabe von al-Biruni's Chronologie, in Documenta Islamica Inedita (Richard Hartmann Festschrift), Berlin, Akademie Verlag 1952, pp. 69-98.
An edition by François de Blois is in progress, see for information and podcast the page on the research project (University College, London)

Translations:
English translation: The Chronology of Ancient Nations: an English version of the Athar-ul-Bakiya of Albiruni, tr. Eduard Sachau, London 1879. Digital version on gallica.bnf.fr here   and from the University Library in Halle (Germany) here.
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Reyhan Biruni, Izbrannye Proizvedenija, vol. 1, Tashkent: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, 1957; this contains Pamyatniki minyvshikh pokolenye Per. i prim. M.A. Sal'ye. Digital version (astro-cabinet.ru). This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 1. The book is in the Utrecht University Library MAG: BAV 8525 dl 1.
Uzbek translation: Abu Raihon Beruniy. Qadimli halqlardan qolgan yodgorliklar. Tarjimon A. Rasulov. Tanlangan asarlar 1. Toshkent 1968.
Tajik translation: Aburaikhon Beruni, Osor-ul-Bokiya, Dushanbe 1990 [available in library of Univ of Utrecht]
Persian Tr. Al athar al-baqiyya`an al-qurun al-khaliya, tarjama-ye Ali Quli Mirza I`tidad al-Sal.tana, Tehran A.H. 1350 (solar) [1971] [not seen]
Persian Tr. Athar-e baqiyya, tarjama-ye Akbar Danaseresht, Tehran 1321 A.H. (solar) [1942], reprints Tehran 1352 A.H. (solar), Tehran 1363 A.H. (solar). (Contents: pp. I-VIII and IX-XVIII: two treatises in Persian by Danaseresht on Trigonometry and Projection of Sphere (not contained in the scan); pp. XIX-XXXII: Danaseresht preface about Biruni's life and work; pp. I - IV and pp.1-578: Persian translation of the text; pp. 579-611: index.) This is a full translation , it contains the parts missing in Sachau's edition .
Scan the 1352 AH solar version.
Persian Translation by Akbar Dana, 1903: Download(archive.org)
Turkish translation: Ebu Reyhan el-Biruni, Maziden Kalanlar (El-Asar el-Bakiye), tr. Ahsen Batur, Istanbul 2011, Download(archive.org)
Edward Sachau made a German translation but apparently this was never published.
German translation of a small section: E. Sachau, J. Holetchek, Eine Berechnung der Entfernung des Sonnen-Apogaeums von dem Frühlingspunkte bei Albiruni, Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Klasse der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 82, Wien 1876, online version (University Library, Halle, Germany).
German article: E. Sachau, Algebraisches über das Schach bei Biruni, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 29 (1875), pp. 148-156 scan of the whole issue which contains the article (archive.org)

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Istanbul, Beyazit 4667 (203 ff, 6th c. H), Krause 479, also known as Umumi 4667.
  • Istanbul, Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III, 3043 (184 ff, 7th c. H), Krause p. 479
  • Istanbul, Ayasofya 2947 (156 ff, 839 H.), Krause p. 479
  • Istanbul, Nuruosmaniye 2893 (118 ff, 8th c. H), Krause p. 479, according to ISMI the number is 4893
  • London, British Library, Add 7491 Rich. (146 ff, 1097 H.)
  • London, British Library, Or. 1495 (157 ff., 1254 H according to Sachau)
  • Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Arabe 1489. Digital version on http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8406161z
  • Patna (India), Bankipore 963 (85 ff, 9th c. H. incomplete)
  • Edinburgh, University Library, Or. 161 (212 ff, 787 H./1307-8), incomplete. Digital version. High resolution individual pages. This manuscript is provided with beautiful miniatures, see this page.
  • Tehran, Malik 3891 (159 ff, 11th c. H), see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Majlis 6406 (244 ff, 1205 H.), see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Majlis 6454, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Majlis 6565, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Majlis 6837, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Sepahsalar 1517/1, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Majlis 471 TabAtabA'I, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Tehran, Milli 2780, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32. Digital version may be available through http://opac.nlai.ir/opac-prod/bibliographic/809195
  • Tehran, Milli 18150, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32. This may or may not be the same as the ms. in the Milli library which may be available in a digital version through http://opac.nlai.ir/opac-prod/bibliographic/1796793
  • Meshed, Razawi 11979, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Meshed, Razawi 16246, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 32.
  • Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, ms. Orient. A. 1525/2, f. 185-197, a copy, made by J.H. Möller and finished in 1821, from Paris Ms. 584, see W. Pertsch,Die orientalischen Handschriften der herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Gotha, dritter Teil: die arabischen Handschriften, dritter Band, Gotha 1881, p. 149-150 (see Online version of this volume of the Pertsch catalogue) (the manuscript number 1552/2 in RI and ISMI is wrong). It is likely that the manuscript number "584" is the same as ms. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Arabe 1489 mentioned above, which is the only manuscript of al-Biruni's Chronology at present in the Bibliothèque; Nationale.
  • St. Petersburg, Institute of Oriental Studies, Arabic manuscripts D 580, dated 1219, incomplete (ISMI)

Studies: See the translations. See also
David Pingree, article in Encyclopedia Iranica, here.
E. Sachau, Algebraisches über das Schach bei Biruni, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 29 (1876), 148-156, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 26-34, scan
E.O. von Lippmann, Naturwissenschaftliches aus der Chronologie der alten Nationen von al-Biruni, Abhandlungen und Vorträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, (vol. 1), Halle 1906, download
P. Soucek, An Illustrated Manuscript of al-Biruni's Chronology of Ancient Nations (i.e. the Edinburgh Manuscript), in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 103-168.
E.S. Kennedy, al-Khwarizmi on the Jewish calendar, Scripta Mathematica 27 (1964), pp. 55-59, reprinted in SIES pp. 661-665.

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4. FULL DISCUSSION OF ALL POSSIBLE WAYS TO CONSTRUCT THE ASTROLABE, isti'Ab al-wujUh al-mumkina fI .san`at al-as.turlAb. GAS VI, 268 no. 6. RI p. 150 no. A5. Boilot no. 46 (cat. E, no. 1, in 80 leaves according to al-Biruni). Ghas/Pay vol. 1 p. 161. DENA vol. 1 p. 768 (pdf version p. 893), FANKHA vol. 3, p. 369.
Since the situation with al-Biruni's works on the astrolabe is confused in the modern literature, I present the beginnings of each. The Arabic text of this work (Isti`ab) begins as follows: al-anfus al-.sAfiya dhawAt nuzU` wa-ishtiyAq ... mithl ma.tlabihi fI hAdhA al-waqt min amr al-a.sturlAb wa-`amalihi `alA 'aqrab al-.turuq min al-.sawAb .... (Pure souls who possess a wish and a desire ... such as his request at this time concerning the astrolabe and its construction by the easiest correct ways...)

Arabic edition: Isti`Ab al-wujUh al-mumkina fi .san`at al-asturlAb, allafahu Mu.hammad ibn A.hmad abU l-Ray.hAn al-Biruni. Tashih wa-tahqiq al-Sayyid Muhammad Akbar Jawadi al-Hoseini. Meshed: Islamic Research Foundation, Astan-e Quds Razavi, 1380 A.H. (solar), 1422 A.H. (lunar), ISBN 964-444-355-1. Based on the manuscripts Tehran, Majlis 3959, written in 689 H, Istanbul Ayasofya 2947, Tehran, Sepahsalar 705, written in 721 H.
Download the edition (with introductions and indices). (pdf, 22MB)

Translations:
At this time, there seems to be no complete translation of the work into Persian, Russian or a Western language.
German translation of the preface in E. Wiedemann, Einleitungen zu arabischen astronomischen Werken, Das Weltall 20 (1920), pp. 24-26, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 157-159, scan.
Partial translation (of the sections on the perfect compass) in R. Rashed, Geometry and Dioptrics in Classical Islam, London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2005, pp. 816-827.

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Philadelphia, Schoenberg Collection, LJS 478, 1b-67a   available online. Information on the manuscript LJS 478. [this ms. also includes an anonymous astrolabe treatise, then Ibn al-Haytham's treatise on planetary latitude theory (iltifaf) starting on f. 74r, Abu Sahl al-Kuhi's treatise on the Perfect Compass, starting on f. 77v]
  • London British Library Or. 5593, f. 3a-89b (see the article by D. Hill cited below). digital version on Qatar Digital Library. Download the whole manuscript in one file (pdf) or only the first part (59 pages) (archive.org)
  • Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Arabe 6860, f. 1-96, mostly an old manuscript (f. 93-96 in more recent hands) digital version in colour; digital version in black and white.
  • Istanbul Topkapi Saray 3505/7, 86 ff, 661 H, Krause p. 479
  • Istanbul Carullah 1451, 66f., 1009 H., Krause p. 479
  • Istanbul Ayasofya 2576 (81 ff), Krause p. 479
  • Istanbul, Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art. This contains a manuscript which was seen by Krause p. 480 as "Asir Reisülküttab 577 (unzugänglich, im Ewqafmuseum)." see F12, Treatise on the astrolabe, below. The manuscript has been rediscovered recently by Hüseyin Sen, and shown to be a manuscript of the Full discussion (Isti`Ab)
  • Berlin Ahlwardt 5795 = Petermann I 672/5 ff. 144-179 (cf. Catalogue Ahlwardt vol. 5 p. 230). Digital version of the whole codex (accessible via ISMI)
  • Berlin Ahlwardt 5796 = Sprenger 1869 (cf. Catalogue Ahlwardt vol. 5 p. 231). Digital version (accessible via ISMI).
  • Oxford Bodleian Marsh 701/3, ff. 187a-362b, 822 H. ISMI gives the ref. Or. I 1037.
  • Dublin Chester Beatty 3773, 64 ff, 9th century H
  • Leiden Or. 591/4, see the article by D. Hill cited below. A bound copy [QB85/M3N10] of this manuscript is in the library of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation, Tehran.
  • Hyderabad, Salar Jang Library, Hay'a Arabic 161 (ISMI, may also be a copy of the next work)
  • Hyderabad Salar Jang Library, Hay'a Arabic 2 (ISMI, may also be a copy of the next work)
  • Rampur, Raza Library, I 425 (ISMI, may also be a copy of the next work)
  • Tunis, Ahmadiyya 5539, 65 ff, 9th c H
  • Tunis, Ahmadiyya 5540, 64 ff, 614 H
  • Cairo, Egyptian National Library, K 8528, see King, Survey p. 48, according to which this manuscript is "wretched" and dates back to ca. 1300 H. ISMI gives the reference Dar al-Kutub K (falak) 8528
  • Baghdad, al-Hikma University, Ya`qub Sarkis Collection, 157 (ISMI)
  • Tehran, Madrasa Shahid al-Motahhari = Sepahsalar 705, ff. 1-94, 721 H, used in the Arabic edition, see FANKHA vol. 3 p. 370.
  • Tehran, Madrasa Shahid al-Motahhari = Sepahsalar 706, ff. 1-143, 1047 H, see Arabic edition p. 45 no. 18, GAS VI, 268 no. 6, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 369.
  • Tehran, Majlis 1926/1, see RI p. 150 no. A5, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 369.
  • Tehran, Majlis 3959, written in 689 H, used in the Arabic edition
  • Tehran, Malik 3319 (104 ff, 10th c. H), see Arabic edition p. 45 no 15, GAS VI, 268 no. 6, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 369.
  • Tehran, Majlis 150, 144 ff, 888 H, see GAS VI, 268 no. 6, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 369.
  • Tehran, Majlis 6516, 70 ff see FANKHA vol. 3 p. 369.
  • Meshed, Kitabkhane-ye Daneshkade-ye Ilahiyyat 6634, not mentioned by FANKHA, may be a manuscript of the Isti`Ab (as stated by Ghas-Pay vol 1 p. 161) but also of work no. 5 Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe
  • Meshed, Kitabkhane-ye Daneshkade-ye Ilahiyyat 6671/1, not mentioned by FANKHA, may be a manuscript of the Isti`Ab (as stated by Ghas-Pay vol 1 p. 161) but also of work no. 5 Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe.
  • Another manuscript of part of the Isti`Ab is Leiden Or. 123/2, ff. 1a-23b or also called Or. 123b(1). This manuscript is a fragment of a text, which researches have incorrectly considered as a separate work by al-Biruni on the theory of projections of al-Saghani, see GAS VI, 270 no. 15. RI p. 147 no. M8. The manuscript consists of three fragments of al-Biruni's Full discussion of all possible ways to construct the astrolabe, which add up to about one-third of the work. Here is a concordance (M is the Meshed edition by Sayyid Muhammad Akbar Jawadi al-Hoseini, mentioned above):
    • Leiden Or. 123/2, ff. 2a-5b = M p. 110 line 10 - p. 124 line 1 (but not the figures on p. 122, 123, 124).
    • Leiden Or. 123/2, ff. 6a-9b = M p. 128 line 14 - p. 142 line 20.
    • Leiden Or. 123/2, ff. 1a-1b followed by 10a- 17b = M p. 184 line 4 - p.213 line 11.
    • Leiden, Or. 123/2 ff. 18a-23b = M p. 217 line 3 - p. 243 line 12. This is the end of the work. The copying of the manuscript was finished [by .sidq ibn .khi.dr ibn `abdallAh b. Shafa, astronomer from Maragha], on Monday 11 Jumada I 676 H. in the city of dUqAt.

    The manuscript Leiden Or. 123/2 has been digitized by Brill Publishers (Leiden) and the page which they put online is actually the first page of the first fragment, M p. 110 line 10 - p. 112 line 11 [you can see the whole page by drawing the visible part of the photo on the Brill website to your desktop]
  • A manuscript of the Isti`Ab seems to be in the Al-Sabah collection, Kuwayt. Unfortunately the museum does not have information for researchers on its website http://darmuseum.org.kw.

False leads:ISMI gives the mss. Tehran, Majlis 81 (the contents is unknown to us, not mentioned in Ghas-Pay vol. 1) and another manuscript Tehran University Central Library and Documentation CRT 5469 (this manuscript 5469 does not contain the Isti`ab but rather Fragment F5 below).
The Arabic edition of the Isti`ab mentions (preface p. 45) as no. 16 the manuscript Tehran, Maktaba al-Zanjan, without a number. This reference is ultimately based (via Boilot p. 181) on a note by F. Krenkow, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 5 (1928) p. 201, who mentions an incomplete "manuscript in Tehran" of the risAla fI al-a.s.tarlAb by al-Biruni, without further information. Elsewhere in the note, Krenkow refers to manuscripts in Zanjan or owned by al-Zanjani so this must have created confusion. Boilot also refers to the journal Lughat al-`Arab 9, 96, (appearing in Baghdad under editorship of "Père Anastase"), which was unavailable to me.
RI p. 150 no. A5, and ISMI give the manuscripts "Tehran, Zanjani 5539, 5540" which are also copied from Boilot who presented the reference as "Zaytuna 5539, 5540. " This is a reference to the library of the Zaytuna mosque in Tunis which contained the mss. Ahmad. 5539 and 5540 of the Isti`Ab, mentioned above.
Ghas-Pay vol. 1 p. 161 presents as the beginning passage of this work (Isti`ab) what is actually the beginning passage of his work Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe, mentioned below in the present website as no. 5.

Studies:
German summary of the work in J. Frank, Zur Geschichte des Astrolabs, Habilitationsschrift (Auszug), Erlangen 1920, reprinted in AIOS vol. 4 pp. 31-62, IMA vol. 35, scan. [The entire Habilitationsschrift seems not to have been published]
German translation of several chapters in: E. Wiedemann, J. Frank, Allgemeine Betrachtungen von al Biruni in einem Werk über die Astrolabien, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften LXI, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät in Erlangen 52-53 (1920-21), pp. 97-121, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 207-231, scan.
German translation of additional chapters in: E. Wiedemann, J. Frank, Vorrichtungen zur Teilung von Kreisen und Geraden usw. nach Biruni, Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde, 41 (1921), pp. 225-236, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 233-244, scan.
Chapter 3 of Volume 2 and Chapter 5 of Volume 3 of F. Sezgin, Catalogue of Instruments of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Sciences (available online, see below) contain diagrams from several manuscripts of this work by al-Biruni on the astrolabe, and photos of instruments that were reconstructed on the basis of these diagrams and are now on view in Frankfurt and Istanbul. These include Vol. 2 pp. 81-83: photos of diagrams of various kinds of astrolabes in several manuscripts; Vol. 2 pp. 124-125: reconstruction of spherical astrolabe of Al-Biruni; Vol. 2 pp. 164-165: reconstruction of a mechanical lunar calendar (see below); Vol. 3 pp. 155-158: reconstructions of four geometrical instruments for astrolabe construction.
The Chapters are available online but the files are large: Chapter 3 of vol. 2 (11,5 MB)   Chapter 5 of vol. 3 (2,5 MB).
H. Seemann unter Mitwirkung von Th. Mittelberger, Das kugelförmige Astrolab nach den Mitteilungen von Alfons X von Kastilien und den vorhandenen arabischen Quellen, Erlangen 1925 (Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin, Heft VIII), reprinted in IMA vol. 88, AIOS vol. 4;
E. Wiedemann, Ein Instrument das die Bewegung von Sonne und Mond dargestellt nach al-Biruni, Der Islam (Strassburg) 4 (1913) 5-13, reprinted in Wiedemann, GS, 2 pp. 718-726, and in IMA 34, pp. 117-125, scan, or download the article here.
E. Wiedemann und J. Frank, Vorrichtungen zur Teilung von Kreisen und Geraden nach Biruni, Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde (Berlin) 41 (1921), 225-236, reprinted in Wiedemann, GS, 2 pp. 963-974.
D. Hill, Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar: Annals of Science 42 (1985), 139-163, available online, reprinted in J.V. Field e.a., eds., Byzantine and Arabic and Arabic mathematical gearing, London: The Science Museum, 1985, and also in a Variorum reprint of the works of Donald Hill.
Animation of the instrument by Jürgen Giesen.
Flora Vafea, Al-Biruni: The plate of the eclipses, Suhayl 15 (2017), pp. 297-354. This contains an edition of the Arabic text with English translation and commentary of the part of the work on the eclipse plate. The article is available online.
On Arabic texts by earlier authors on the eclipse plate see Johannes Thomann, Astrolabes as Eclipse Computers: Four Early Arabic Texts on Construction and Use of the Safiha Kusufiyya (.safI.ha kusUfiyya), Medieval Encounters 23 (2017), 8-44.
S. Pines, La Théorie de la rotation de la terre à l'époque d'al-Biruni, Journal Asiatique 244 (1956), pp. 301-330, (partially) reprinted in IMA 36, pp. 313-318, scan. Probably the same article by Shlomo Pines appeared in Actes du VIII Congrès International d;Histoire des Sciences, Florence-Milan, 3-8 Sept. 1956, translated into Persian by Behnaz Hashemipour in Ma`aref vol. 16 no. 2, Mordad-Aban 1375 A.H. (solar).
E. Wiedemann, Über die Konstruktion der Ellipse, Zeitschrift für mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht 50 (1919), pp. 177-181, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 149-153, scan.
J. Len Berggren, Medieval Islamic methods for drawing azimuth circles on the astrolabe, Centaurus 34 (1991), pp. 309-344.
A.K. Taqizadeh, S. A. Vakhabov, Astroljabii srednevekogo vostoka, Istoriko-astronomicheskije Issledovaniya 12 (1975), 169-204, digital version (astro-cabinet.ru)

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5. REALIZING THE POTENTIALITIES OF THE ASTROLABE: (The Arabic titles are slightly different in the different manuscripts but in their complete form they include "(ikhrAj) mA fI quwwat al-as.turlAb ilA l-fi`l" (transformation) what is in the potentiality of the astrolabe into actuality. GAS V, 381 no. 8 = GAS VI, 268 no. 7 = GAS VI, 269 no. 8 = GAS VI, 269,10. RI p. 151 no. 9. Boilot no. 49 (cat. E, no. 4, in 30 leaves according to al-Biruni). FANKHA vol. 3 p. 459. In al-Biruni's own list of works this is the fourth of his works on astronomical instruments.
Note: the Arabic text of this work begins as follows: al-a.s.turlAb ashraf al-AlAt al-musta`mala fI .sinA`at al-nujUm... (The astrolabe is the noblest instrument which is used in the art of astronomy...)

Arabic edition: Pouyan Rezvani, Two treatises on the astrolabe by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni (973-1048), PhD thesis, Utrecht University, 2019.
The Arabic text of a passage on the circumference of the earth is quoted from lecture 39, pp. 288-294 of Nallino's lectures on history of astronomy in Arabic and printed in Syed Hasan Barani, Muslim Researches in Geodesy, Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume Calcutta (Iran Society, 159-B Dharamtala Street) 1951, pp. 1-52, especially pp. 32-33 scan. Note that Nallino's lectures were translated into Persian as Tarikh Nojum Eslami by Ahmad Aram, Tehran 1349 A.H. solar, see pp. 361-365.

Translations: Only fragments of the work have been translated. See Mr. Rezvani's thesis, mentioned above, and also:
German translation of the Preface in E. Wiedemann, Einleitungen zu arabischen astronomischen Werken, Das Weltall 20 (1920), pp. 131-132, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 160-161, and in Wiedemann, GS, vol. 2, p. 892-894, scan.
German translation of the discussion of the circumference of the earth in E. Wiedemann, Bestimmungen des Erdumfanges von al-Beruni, Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik 1 (1908), pp. 66-69, reprinted in IMA 34, pp. 44-47 and in Wiedemann, GS, vol. 1 pp. 310-313, scan.

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Diyarbakir Il Halk Kütüphanesi, A 2213 = 21 Hk 403/3, 33b-42b (document number 14559 on www.yazmalar.gov.tr). There the manuscript is wrongly catalogued as the istI`Ab but Mr. Rezvani has shown that this is a manuscript of Realizing the potentialities.
  • Berlin Ahlwardt 5794 = Petermann I 672/1 f. 1-43 (cf. Catalogue Ahlwardt vol. 5 p. 228 with table of contents) , see King, Survey, p. 48. See also Fragment F1 in this website. Digital version of the whole codex accessible at https://ismi.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/digitalization/281168
  • Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, mIqAt 262, 19 fols., lacks last section, ca. 1300 H, see King, Survey, p. 48. Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, K falak 3929 (mentioned by RI p. 151 no. A9) consists of photos of Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, mIqAt 262.
  • Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, K falak 3774,2, ff. 14r-21r, 1249 H., see King, Survey, p. 48.
  • Meshed, Astan-e Qods, Razawi no. 5594, 24 ff. 1318 A.H.; the beginning of this text is quoted in GAS VI p. 269 no. 10 and FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460. Ghas-Pay vol. 1 p. 169 incorrectly states that this is a manuscript of the Isti`ab.
  • Yazd, Ketabkhane-ye Waziri, 3753/8 (see Ghas-Pay p. 183, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460)
  • Tehran, Daneshgah 1971/2, 13b-55a, see Ghas-Pay p. 183, GAS VI, p. 269 no. 8, FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460.
  • Tehran, Daneshgah, Kitabkhane-ye Daneshkade-ye Ilahiyyat 51/1, see FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460, where the beginning of the text is quoted. Ghas-Pay vol. 1 p. 169 incorrectly states that this is a manuscript of the Isti`ab.
  • The anonymous manuscript on the "Astrolabe", Tehran, Majlis 1516, Ghas-Pay p. 180, bottom of page, has been identified in FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460 on the basis of its beginning passage, as a manuscript of this work of al-Biruni.
  • Tehran, Milli 21273, which is probably the manuscript which may be available in a digital version through http://opac.nlai.ir/opac-prod/bibliographic/1255869
The following manuscripts have not yet been inspected by us or one of our friends:
  • Hayderabad, Oriental Mss Library and Research Institute, Asafiya I, 803, riyada 42, the last treatise in this codex.
  • Rampur, Rida 3689, ff. 152b-164a
  • Tehran, Daneshgah, Kitabkhane-ye Daneshkade-ye Ilahiyyat 341/1; in FANKHA vol. 3 p. 460 the beginning of the text is quoted.

False leads: ISMI mentiones Tehran University, Central Library and Documentation CTR 1971 and CTR 5469, but CTR 1971 is a reference to Daneshgah 1971 above, and CTR 5469 contains fragment F5 below, not Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe.

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B2. Works which are extant in less than 10 Arabic manuscripts but in more than one Arabic manuscript

6. MINERALOGY: kitAb al-jamAhir fi ma`rifat al-jawAhir, Book on Multitudes (of information) on the Knowledge of Jewels. RI p. 156 no. Mi1. Boilot no. 156 (not mentioned in al-Biruni's own list of works). DENA vol. 3, p. 700 (pdf version p. 3195).

Arabic editions: by F. Krenkow: Hyderabad: Osmaniya Oriental Publication Bureau, 1936.
Download a searchable Arabic text from www.al-mostafa.info (thanks to Sean Furlong)
Scans of the Hyderabad edition: part 1 (pp. 1-99),   part 2 (pp. 100-199) ,   part 3 (pp. 200-273) .  
Appendix and indices: part 4   part 5   part 6  
Another Arabic edition: Al-Biruni, Al-Jamahir fi al-jawahir, tahqiq Yusuf al-Hadi, Tehran: Sharikat al-Nashr al-`Ilmi wa l-thaqafi, 1374 A.H. (solar) / 1995 CE.
Arabic edition of extracts of the work in pp. 79-107 of A.Zeki Validi Togan, Biruni's Picture of the World, Delhi 1941.

Translations:
Russian translation by A.M. Belenichkov on pp. 1-248 of: Sobranie Svedenii dlya poznaniya dragotsennostei (Mineralogiya), Moscow, Izdatelstvo Akademia Nauk SSSR, 1963. The volume can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, or here.
English translation by Hakim Mohammad Said with commentary by Sami Hamarneh, Al-Biruni: The book Most Comprehensive in Knowledge on Precious Stones, Islamabad (Pakistan) 1989; online version at http://farlang.com/books/al-biruni-comprehensive-book-on-precious-stones.
Turkish translation Kiymetli taslar ve metaller kitabi, Ebu'r Reyhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad el-Biruni, ter. Emine Sonnur Özcan, Ankara 2017.

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Kayseri (Turkey), Rashid Effendi 596 (document number 120230 on www.yazmalar.gov.tr)
  • Escorial 905/2
  • Istanbul, Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III 2047, 192 ff.
  • Berlin? (no further information known to me, nothing found in the Ahlwardt catalogue, section Steine, nor in the index volume 22, p. 316)
  • Cairo, Taymur Pasha 153
  • There is a ms. called muntakhab min kitAb al-jamAhir, selected passages from the Book of Jewels, in Tehran, Majlis, 1537, see FANKHA vol. 1 p. 273.

Studies: German translation of al-Biruni's long introduction, on valuable ("gems") characteristics in humans, in Taki el-Din al-Hilali, Die Einleitung zu al-Biruni's Steinbuch mit Erläuterungen übersetzt, PhD dissertation (Berlin), Gräfenhainichen 1941, scan
Paul Kalle, Islamische Quellen zum chinesischen Porzellan, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 90 (1936), pp. 322-356, digital version (University of Halle)
Paul Kalle, Bergkristall, Glas und Glasflüsse nach dem Steinbuch von el-Biruni, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 90 (1936), pp. 322-356, Digital version (University of Halle)
Ahmed Zeki Velidi Togan, Die Schwerter der Germanen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 90 (1936), pp. 19-37, Digital version (University of Halle)
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7. MIXED ASTROLABES (from northern and southern astrolabes):   maqAla fI tashIl al-ta.s.tI.h al-as.turlAbI wa-l-`amal bi-murakkabAtihi min al-shamAlI wa-l-janUbI, treatise on facilitating the astrolabe projection and on the operation with the ones which are composed from northern and southern (astrolabes). GAS VI, 270 no. 14, RI p. 151 no. A13. Boilot no. 47 (cat. E, no. 2, in 10 leaves according to al-Biruni). Ghas/Pay p. 325. DENA vol. 2, p. 1174 (pdf version p. 2456). This is the same work as Pearls on the surface of the spheres, kitAb al-durar fI sa.t.h al-ukar, GAS V, 381 no. 4. Written for Abu Sahl `Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Tabari, see RI p. 108 no. 285.
Note: the Arabic text of this work begins as follows: kunt .harrartu li-mawlAya mA kha.tara bi-bAl wa-ta.sawwara fI al-waqt wa-l-.hAl min 'a`mAl tas.tI.h al-'ukar wa-ta.sawwuruhA bimA 'amkana min 'anwA` al-.suwar .hatt_A .zanantu wa-'a.zunnu 'annI istaw`abtu jamI` mA yumkinu 'an yatawahhama fIhi . . . wa-al-'An lammA 'amaranI. . . bi-'ifrAd `amal yakh.tu.ssu .san`at al-'as.turlAb al-musta`mal (I had composed for His Excellency what occurred to my mind and what I had imagined at that time and in that situation about the procedure of projection of the spheres and their representation by different kinds of figures that are possible, until I thought, and still think, that I had exhausted all that can be imagined about it... and now, since he commanded me to compose a separate work devoted to the construction of the common astrolabe.. (and the determination of the ascendent for all different kinds of astrolabe) ..... ).

Arabic edition: in Ahmad Dallal, Biruni's Book of Pearls concerning the Projection of Spheres, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 4 (1987-88), pp. 81-138, based on the three Oxford manuscripts. Scan

Translations:
English translation in Ahmad Dallal, Biruni's Book of Pearls concerning the Projection of Spheres, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 4 (1987-88), pp. 81-138, based on the three Oxford manuscripts.

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Oxford, Bodleian, Thurston 3, 120a-122a
  • Oxford, Bodleian, Marsh 713, 239b-243b
  • Oxford, Seld. 3297, 85 (10 ff.), see Uri 226, no. 1046.
  • Tehran, Malik library 640/7 (see Ghas-Pay vol. 1 p. 325, DENA vol. 2 p. 1174, FANKHA vol. 8 p. 197-8)

Note: the manuscripts Berlin 5794 and Paris 2468/1 which Boilot mentions under no. 47 do not contain this work.

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8. CHORDS: istikhrAj al-awtAr fI l-dA'ira, the derivation of the chords in the circle. GAS V, 381 no. 3. RI p. 146 no. M4. Boilot no. 64 (cat. H, no. 4, in 80 leaves)

Arabic edition:
Arabic text printed in Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 1, beginning until p. 108 line 8 al-musawiya li-zawiya, followed by p. 224:2 O (ayn) until the end with figure 118, right side.(reprinted in IMA 32).
Note that this Arabic text is based on the Bankipore manuscript (see below), which is disorganized and mixed with fragments of two other treatises of al-Biruni and a treatise by Ibrahim ibn Sinan. The editors of the Hyderabad edition also printed these fragments as part of their edition of the Chords.
Scan of the text of the Chords, from which fragments of other extraneous texts (between pp. 108 and 224) have been deleted.
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni (note that p. 108-224 of tract no. 1 do not in fact belong to the Chords)
Another online version of tract 1: Istikhraj al-awtar, in the Hyderabad edition (www.wdl.org, note that p. 108-224 do not in fact belong to the Chords)
Arabic edition with commentary by Ahmed Said al-Dimirdash, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Istikhraj al-awtar fi l da'ira, Cairo 1965, based on Istanbul and Bankipore ms. Scan Because of the disorganized state of the Bankipore manuscript, the edition of Dimirdash is a combination of three texts:
p. 32 until p. 172 line 2 and p. 286 line 24 - p. 287 line 7 is the Chords (note that a small part of the Arabic text in the Bankipore manuscript is omitted in the edition)
p. 172 line 7 until p. 245 is part of al-Biruni's On the solar equation (text no. 20 below)
p. 246 line 9 until p. 286 line 23 is part of the Selected Problems (al-masA'il al-mukh.tAra) of Ibrahim ibn Sinan.
For more details see Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468,(scan), pp. 147-149.

Translations:
German translation based on the Leiden ms.: H. Suter, Das Buch der Auffindung der Sehnen im Kreise, Bibliotheca Mathematica Dritte Folge, 11 (1910-11), 11-78, reprinted in IMA 35, pp. 39-106, reprinted in Suter, Beiträge vol. 2, pp. 280-347, scan,   another scan.
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 7, Matematicheskie i astronomicheskie traktaty, Tashkent: Fan, 1987, tr. and comm. P. G. Bulgakov i B.A. Rozenfeld, pp. 27-77 (translation), pp. 259-278 (commentary), based on the Leiden, Istanbul and Bankipore mss. This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 7.
There is also an earlier Russian translation: "Kniga ob opredelenii khord v kruge pri pomoshchi lomanoy linii, vpisannoy v nego," Per. S.A. Krasnova, L.A. Karpova, prim. B.A. Rozenfeld, S.A. Krasnova, Iz istorii nauki i tekhniki v stranakh vostoka, Moscow, 3, 1963, 93-147.

Studies: Detailed study in Persian: A.Q. Qorbani, Tahrir-e Estekhraj al-Awtar, ta'lif ustad Abu Rayhan Biruni, riyazidan wa-monajjem-e bozorg-e Irani, Tehran 1355 A.H. (solar), Selsele-ye Entesharat-e Anjoman-e Athar-e Melli no. 124, download here (in Persian). See also the extensive study in Persian in Qorbani, Tahqihi, pp. 95- 197, download the whole book here (in Persian)
In memory of the late Professor Qorbani, Mr. Fariborz Shirazi composed a study: "A note on two Books of Biruni on Chords" download here

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Istanbul, Murat Molla 1396/4 (52b-72b), Krause p. 480. Here is a pdf of this manuscript, compiled from the old website www.ziedan.com, no longer active.
  • Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, Mustafa Fadil Riyada 41m, 74b-81a, see King, Survey p. 48, edition by the 18th-century author Mu.s.tafA .SidqI ibn .SAli.h
  • Patna (India), Bankipore 2468, 282b-298b, followed by 326a. Scan of the manuscript. (The scan includes two copies of f. 298b as well as a copy of 326b, which is empty but contains at the end an unidentified figure)
    On the disorganized pages of the Bankipore manuscript see Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468, p. 147 no A 40 (scan).
  • Leiden Or. 513, 108-129. Photos of the Leiden manuscript are to be found in A.Q. Qorbani, Tahrir-e Estekhraj al-Awtar, ta'lif ustad Abu Rayhan Biruni, riyazidan wa-monajjem-e bozorg-e Irani, Tehran 1355 A.H. (solar), Selsele-ye Entesharat-e Anjoman-e Athar-e Melli no. 124, download the entire book here.
    The same book contains the argument that this Leiden manuscript (which differs from the other three manuscripts) contains not the IstikhrAj al-awtAr fI al-dA'ira but another work by Biruni entitled Jam` al-.turuq al-sA'ira fI ma`rifat awtAr al-dA'ira, Boilot no. 108, which al-Biruni mentions in the list of his own works as the fifth work in progress. See also Qorbani's argumentation (in Persian) in his Biographie des mathématiciens de l'époque islamique de 3e á 11e siè de l'hégire (Zendeginame-ye riyazidanan-e dowre-ye Eslami), Tehran , ca. 1995, pp. 190-192.
  • The "manuscript" Cairo, Dar al-Kutub, Riyada 879/5 mentioned by RI, p. 146 no. 4, and ISMI, consists of photos of the Leiden manuscript, see King, Survey p. 48.

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9. INDIA: fI ta.hqIq mA li-l-hind min maqUla maqbUla fi al-`aql aw mardhUla, on the investigations of the categories (of things) in India, which are acceptable to reason or despicable. GAS VI, 270 no. 17. RI no. 145 E2. Boilot no. 93 (cat. K, no. 1, in 700 leaves according to al-Biruni).

Arabic editions:
E. Sachau, Kitab Abi al-Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Biruni fi tahqiq ma li-al-Hind min maqula maqbula fi al-`aql aw mardhula = Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about A. D. 1030's India, London 1887. Download (archive.org)
Another Arabic edition: Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publication Bureau 1958 (based on Ms. Paris 6080). Digital version of the Hyderabad ed. on here (archive.org) and   here (also archive.org); also another digital version (wdl.org)

Translations:
German translation: Sachau (apparently never published)
English translation: E. Sachau, Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about A.D. 1030, London 1888 (several reprints). Digital version of volume 1: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1039528, of volume 2: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k103953n. Also copies on http://www.archive.org: volume 1   volume 2.
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 2, Tashkent: Fan, 1963. The volume was reprinted in 1995, This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, India (scroll down).
Uzbek translation: Abu Rayhon Beruniy. Hindiston. A. Rasulov, Yu. Hakimjonov, Gh. Jalolov tarjimasi. Tanlangan asarlar 2. Toshkent 1965.
Persian translation: Tahqih ma li-l-hind,..., tarjome Mahuchehr Saduqi Seha, 2 vols? printed by the Mo'assesah-ye Motale`at wa-tahqiqat-e farhangi, no date.
(Partial) Persian translation by Manushehr Sandiqi Sibi, Tehran 1362 [1983] (?)
(Partial) Persian translation in Falsafah-ye Hend-e qadim: tarjomeh-ye az ketab-e ma le-l-Hend, by Akbar Danaseresht, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1363 A.H. (solar) [1984 CE], previous edition 1352 A.H. (solar) [1972 CE]
Turkish translation: Tahkiku ma li'l-Hind: Biruni'nin Gözüyle Hindistan, tr. Kivameddin Burslan, with intr. and notes by Ali Ihsan Yitik, Ankara, türk Tarih Kurumu, 2015, ISBN 9751630506

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Arabe, 6080. Digital version (gallica.fr)
  • Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Arabe, 2222 (a fragment only, f. 234b-238a, at the very end of the manuscript.) Digital version of the whole manuscript.
  • Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Arabe, 2280 (apparently 80 chapters, see M. de Slane, Catalogue des Manuscrits Arabes (de la Bibliothèque Nationale), Paris 1883-1895, p. 399). Digital version
  • Istanbul, Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha 100 (according to Turkish autorities), the number is 1001 in Krause p. 480. The manuscript is available online in pdf (archive.org)

Studies: there is an enormous research literature on the India but it is not the purpose of this website to give an list. Here are only a few referenes.
For mathematical and astronomical aspects see Kim Plofker, Mathematics in India, Princeton 2009, pp. 260-266.
For an evaluation of his knowledge of Sanskrit see: David Pingree, Al-Biruni's Knowledge of Sanskrit Astronomical Texts, in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 67-81.
Bruce B. Lawrence, The Use of Hindu Religious Texts in al-Biruni's INdia with special reference to Patanjali's Yoga-Sutras, in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 29-48.
F.E. Peters, Science, History and Religion: Some Reflections on the India of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni, in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 17-27.
Ainslee T. Embree, Foreign Interpreters of India: the case of al-Biruni, in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 1-16.

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10. PROJECTIONS OF THE SPHERE: fI ta.s.tI.h al-.suwar wa-tabtIkh al-kuwar, on making figures plane and making spheres flat. GAS V, 381 no. 10, GAS VI, 272 no. 19. RI Boilot no. 48 (cat. E, no. 3, in 10 leaves according to al-Biruni). DENA vol. 8 p. 474 (pdf version 9307).
Description of projections of a sphere on a plane, for drawing maps of the heavens and the earth. Elaboration of the last section of the Chronology.

Arabic edition:
A.S. Saidan, Kitab tas.tI.h al-.suwar wa-tab.tIkh al-kuwar li abi al-ray.hAn al-bIrUnI, Amman 1977 (based only on the Leiden manuscript)

Translations:
English translation: J.L. Berggren, Al-Biruni on plane maps of the sphere, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 6 (1982), 47-80 (based only on the Leiden manuscript);
English translation of the preface in: Lutz Richter-Bernburg, Al-Biruni's Maqala fi tastih al-suwar wa-tabtikh al-kuwar: a translation of the preface with notes and commentary, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 6 (1982), 113-131.
German translation: H. Suter, Über die Projektion der Sternbilder und der Länder von al-Biruni, Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin 4 (1922), 79-93, reprinted in IMA 35, and reprinted in Suter, Beiträge, vol. 2, pp. 620-634, scan.
Russian translation in: A. Akhmedov, B.A. Rozenfeld, *"Kartographia - odno iz pervykh doshedshich de nas sochinenij Biruni, in: Matematika na srednevekovom vostoke, Tashkent 1978, pp. 127-153, scan. [IGAIW]
Uzbek translation: Yulduz turkumlarini proyektsiyalash va joylarni (kharitaga) kuchirish haqida (Kartografiya), A. Rasulov tarjimasi, in Beruniy. Tughilgan kunining 1000 yilligiga. Mas'ul muharrir U.I. Karimov va A. Irisov. Tashkent 1977, pp. 244-259. [not seen]
See also E.S. Kennedy, P. Kunitzsch and R.P. Lorch, The melon-shaped astrolabe in Arabic astronomy, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 1999, pp. 204-209 (fragment of the Arabic text with translation).

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Leiden, Or. 14, ff 300-314, see facsimile in Journal for the History of Arabic Science 6 (1982), 81-96. This manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers, Leiden.
  • Tehran, Danesgah 5469, 7b-13b, a good manuscript. DENA (pdf version 9307) and FANKHA (vol. 8 p. 198) mention ms. Yazd, Olumi, Shaykh Ali, 64/3, Nashriyya 447-4. The same manuscript is mentioned by RI as Tehran, Ulumi 64/3. This must be the same as Tehran, Daneshgah 5469, 7b-13b (although RI mentions the two as different manuscripts).

Studies: Akbar Dana-Shirist, risAla fI tas.tI.h al-kura ma`a ta.khI.sihA bi l-fArisiyya, Tehran 1353 A.H. (solar), scan (main text of the article in Arabic). This is also based on the final chapter of the Chronology (no. 3 in this website).


RI mentions another ms. Cairo Riyada 898/16. This is, however, a set of photos of the Leiden manuscript, see King, Survey, p. 47.

Studies:
E.S. Kennedy and M.-T. Debarnot: Two Mappings Proposed by Biruni. Zeitschrift f¨r Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 1 (1984), pp. 145-147.

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11. RULE OF THREE IN INDIA, rAshikAt al-hind. GAS V, 380 no. 1. RI p. 146 no. M3. Boilot no. 38 (cat. C, no. 5, according to al-Biruni in 15 leaves). Rule of Three refers to the solution of problems such as a:b=c:x where x is a required quantity and a, b, c are given quantities.

Arabic edition: Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 4, (reprinted in IMA 32), scan.
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni.
Arabic edition in: Rashikat al-Hind: tanAsub nazd-e hendeyAn, tashIh, tarjomeh va-tahqIq Mohammad Mehdi Kaveh Yazdi, Tehran, Miras-e Maktoob 2010, series Miras-e Maktub Rasail 9, Ulum va funun 2 (this includes a facsimile of the Arabic manuscript Patna, Bankipore 2468).

Translations:
Russian translation: B.A. Rosenfeld, Kniga ob indijskikh rashikakh. Perevod i primechania. Iz istorii nauki i techniki b stranakh Vostoka vol. 3, Moscow 1963, 148-167 (not seen).
Persian translation in: Rashikat al-Hind: tanAsub nazd-e hendeyAn, tashIh, tarjomeh va-tahqIq Mohammad Mehdi Kaveh Yazdi, Tehran, Miras-e Maktoob 2010, series Miras-e Maktub Rasail 9, Ulum va funun 2.

Arabic manuscripts:

Studies: See Qorbani, Tahqiqi, pp. 55-68 (in Persian, download the whole book here), and the recent article by Takanori Kusuba, A treatise by al-Biruni on the Rule of Rhree and its Variations, in: N. Sidoli, G. Van Brummelen, eds., From Alexandria Through Baghdad. Surveys and Studies in the Ancient Greek and Medieval Islamic Mathematical Sciences in Honor of J.L. Berggren, New York 2014, pp. 469-485, available online.

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12. SPECIFIC GRAVITIES: fi al-nisab allatI bayna al-filizzAt wa-l-jamAhir fi l-.hajm (wa l-wazn?), on the ratios between metals and jewels in volume (and weight?). Boilot no. 63 (cat. H, no. 3, in 30 leaves according to al-Biruni). RI p. 155 no. Me1.

Arabic edition: The work has not yet been edited.

Translations:
Russian translation in: B.A. Rosenfeld, M. M. Rozhanskaya, Ob otnosheniyakh mezhdy metallami i dragotsennymi kamnyami, in: Iz istorii fiziko-matematiceskikh nauk na srednevekovom vostoke: Traktaty al-Khazini, al-Biruni, ibn al-Husayna, ash-Shirazi, Nauchnoe nasledstvo vol. 6, Moscow 1983, pp. 141-160 (translation)
scan, pp. 309-316 (notes), scan. Or Download the whole volume Iz istorii fiziko-matematiceskikh nauk na srednevekovom vostoke: Traktaty al-Khazini, al-Biruni, ibn al-Husayna, ash-Shirazi (Moscow 1983).
The translation is not contained in Abu raykhan Beruni: Izbraniye proizvedeniya vol. 7, Tashkent 1987; in the reference in RI p. 155 no. Me1, correct al-Biruni [49] to al-Biruni [48].

Arabic manuscripts:

  • Ms. Beirut, St. Joseph 223, ff. 22-55. Scan of the manuscript (very poor quality). For a description of the whole codex Beirut, St Joseph 223 see pages CAT1C069 and CAT1C070 of the online version of L. Cheikho, Catalogue Raisonné des manuscrits historiques de la Bibliothèque Orientale de l'Université St. Joseph, 1913-1929.
  • RI and ISMI also mention a manuscript in Hyderabad, Oriental Mss. Library and Research Institute, (Asafiyya) Riyada 125.

Studies: M.M. Rozhanskaya and B.A. Rozenfeld: On al-Biruni's densimetry, in David A. King, George Saliba, ed., From Deferent to Equant: A volume of studies in the History of Science in the Ancient and Medieval near East in Honor of E.S. Kennedy, New York 1987, pp. 403-417.
M. M. Rozhanskaya, O rekonstruktsii polnogo teksta traktata al-Biruni ob udel'nikh vesakh, Istoriko-Matematicheskie Issledovaniya vtoraya seriya, vol. 7 (42), 2002, pp. 223-242, scan.
See also the German articles E.Wiedemann, Über die Verbreitung der Bestimmungen des spezifischen Gewichtes nach al-Biruni, Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinische Sozietät zu Erlangen Band 45 (1913), 31-34, reprinted in Wiedemann, Aufsätze vol. 2, pp. 1-4 (based on a summary of Biruni's work by a later Turkish author)
See also E. Wiedemann, Über das al-Berunische Gefäss zur spezifischen Gewichtsbestimmung, Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft Band 10 (1908), 339-343, reprinted in Wiedemann, GS, vol 1, p. 236-240 (based on the Beirut manuscript of Biruni's original work). scan.

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B3. Substantial works which are extant in only one Arabic manuscript

13. KEYS TO ASTRONOMY: maqAlId `ilm al-hay'a, keys to the science of astronomy, GAS VI, 267 no. 2. RI p. 146 no. M7. Boilot no. 7 (cat. A no. 7, in 100 leaves according to al-Biruni). Ghas-Pay p. 1071-2. DENA vol. 9 p. 1122 (pdf version p. 11256).

Arabic edition: Marie-Thérèse Debarnot, Al-Biruni, Kitab maqalid `ilm al-hay'a, La trigonométrie sphérique chez les Arabes de l'Est à la fin du Xe siècle. Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 1985, PIFD 114. Download the Arabic edition here (archive.org)

Translations: French translation in Marie-Thérèse Debarnot, Al-Biruni, Kitab maqalid `ilm al-hay'a, La trigonométrie sphérique chez les Arabes de l'Est à la fin du Xe siècle. Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 1985, PIFD 114. Download French translation.

Arabic manuscript: Tehran, Sepahsahar 597, 163a-193a (?), 784 H.; also mentioned by Ghas-Pay vol. 2 p. 1071-2, as a manuscript in Madrasa-ye Ali-ye Shahid Motahhari 597 (this is the same manuscript).
Photos of the entire manuscript can be found in the old edition of A.Q. Qorbani, Biruni-Nameh, Tehran 1967.
According to the article on Biruni in the Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam (Daneshname-ye Jahan-e Eslam), a copy of this manuscript, made by Ali Muhammad Isfahani in 1279 H./1862 AD, is now in a private collection. On this mathematician see Zeinab Karimian, "Ali Muhammad Isfahani and the Logarithm of Numbers", Tarikh-e Elm 12/2 (2015-2016) 45-63 (in English), digital version.

Studies:
E.S. Kennedy, Al-Biruni's Maqalid `ilm al-hay'a, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 30 (1971), 308-314, online version (JSTOR), reprinted in SIES pp. 596-602.
See also J. Len Berggren, The Origin of al-Biruni's Method of the Zijes in the Theory of Sundials. Centaurus 28 (1985) pp. 1-16.
Study in Persian in Qorbani, Tahqiqi pp. 198-237 (download the whole book here).

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14. COORDINATES: ta.hdId nihAyAt al-amAkin li-ta.s.hI.h masAfAt al-masAkin, determination of the directions of places for the correction of the distances of localities. GAS VI, 267 no. 4. RI p. 154 no. G3. Boilot no. 19 (cat.B, no. 1, in 100 leaves according to al-Biruni). DENA vol. 2, p. 834 (pdf version 2116).

Arabic editions: by P. Bulgakov and I. Ahmad, Cairo 1962, reprinted Frankfurt: Institute for History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 1992, Islamic Geography vol. 25. Download (archive.org) (pdf)
Another Arabic edition: M. at-Tangi, Ankara 1960 (not seen).
Facsimile edition by Fuat Sezgin in collaboration with Fabian Käs, Frankfurt: Institute for History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 2010, Series C 76. Download (archive.org)
Arabic edition of parts of the work in pp. 54-78 of A.Zeki Validi Togan, Biruni's Picture of the World, Delhi 1941.

Translations:
English translation: Jamal Ali, The determination of the coordinates of positions for the correction of distances between cities, Beirut 1967, reprinted Frankfurt: Institute for History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 1992, Islamic Geography vol. 26, download here (archive.org)
Commentary: E.S. Kennedy, A commentary upon Biruni's Kitab tahdid al-Amakin: an 11th century treatise on mathematical geography, Beirut 1973, reprinted Frankfurt: Institute for History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 1992, Islamic Geography vol. 27, download here (archive.org)
Russian translation and commentary by G.P. Bulgakov in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 3, Geodesia,Tashkent: Fan, 1966. Digital version (astro-cabinet.ru) This translation can also be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 3.
Persian translation: kitAb ta.hdId nihAyAt al-amAkin li-ta.s.hI.h masAfAt al-masAkin, ta'lIf Abu Ray.hAn ... bIrUnI, tarjama-ye A.hmad ArAm, Tehran 1352 (A.H. solar), EnteshArAt-e Danehshkade-ye Tehran no. 1392. [This work is available in the library of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation, Tehran]
Turkish translation: Tahdîdü Nihâyâti'l-Emâkin, Ebû Reyhân Muhammad b. Ahmed el-Bîrûnî. Tercüme Kivâmeddin Burslan. Transliterasyonu Hazιlayanlar Melek Dosay Gökdogan - Tuba Uymaz. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2013, ISBN 978-975-16-2672-1. [Based on an Ottoman Turkish translation made by Kivâmeddin Burslan in 1922.]

Arabic manuscript:
Istanbul, Süleymaniye, Fatih 3386, 171 ff. 416 H., see Krause p. 480-481. See facsimile edition above.
RI p. 154 no. G3, and ISMI mentions another manuscript in Cairo, Hay'a 84-85. This "manuscript" is a set of photos of the Istanbul manuscript, see King, Survey, p. 48.
For a small fragment of this text in a London manuscript see fragment no. F4 below.
The Coordinates may well be the source of the text on the Fakhri Sextant, no. 23 below.

Studies:
J. Len Berggren, Medieval Analemmas for Determining the Qibla, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 4 (1980), 69-80.
J. Len Berggren, A coincidence of Pappos' Book VIII with al-Biruni's Tahdid, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 2 (1978), pp. 137-142.
J. Len Berggren, On Biruni's Method of the Zijes for the Qibla, in: Proceedings of the 16th international congress of the history of science (Bucharest 1981), C pp. 237-245.
Edward S. Kennedy, Al-Biruni on the Muslim Times of Prayer, in: Peter J. Chelkowski, ed. The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, New York 1975, pp. 83-94, reprinted in SIES p. 299-310.
Ahmed Zeki Validi Togan, Die Nordvölker bei Biruni, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 90 (1936), pp. 38-52, Digital version (Halle University)

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15. TRANSLATION OF THE YOGA SUTRA'S: tarjamat kitAb bAtanjAl fI al-khalA.s min al-irtibAk, translation of the Book of Patanjali on the cessation of involvement. Boilot no. 98 (cat. K, no. 6, number of leaves not indicated). RI p. 156 no. PH3. DENA vol. 8 p. 481 (pdf version 9314-5).

Arabic edition: H. Ritter, Al-Biruni's Übersetzung des Yoga-Sutra des Patanjali, Oriens 9 (1956), 165-200. Online version on JSTOR.
New Arabic edition: pAtAnjali, rIkhteh-ye khAme-ye ustAdh ra'Is abU ray.hAn bIrUnI, ta.s.hI.h mujaddad manuchehr .sadUqI sohA, Tehran: pazUheshgAh-e `olUm-e ensAnI wa-mo.tAle`At-e farhangI, 1379 A.H. solar.

Translations:
English translation: Shlomo Pines, Tuvia Gelblum, Al-Biruni's Arabic Version of Patanjali's Yogasutra, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, vol. 29 no. 2 (1966), 302-325, vol. 40 no. 3 (1977), 522-549; vol. 46 no. 2 (1983), 258-304; vol. 52 no. 2 (1989), 265-305.
Scan on archive.org (all four parts in one file).
Scans of the same on JSTOR: Part 1: vol. 29 no. 2 (1966), 302-325   Part 2: vol. 40 no. 3 (1977), 522-549   Part 3: vol. 46 no. 2 (1983), 258-304   Part 4: vol. 52 no. 2 (1989), 265-305.

Arabic manuscript: Istanbul, Köprülü 1589, 412a-419a.

Studies:See Mario Kozah, The Birth of Indology as an Islamic Science: Al-Biruni's Treatise on Yoga Psychology, Leiden, Brill, 2015.

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16. PHARMACOLOGY: kitAb al-.saydana fI l-.tibb, book of pharmacology in medicine, RI p. 156 no. ME1. Boilot no. 158 (not mentioned in al-Biruni's own list of works). DENA vol. 7 p. 219 (pdf version p. 7772-7773).

Arabic editions:
Facsimile edition of the Arabic manuscript in vol. 2 of Ebu'r-Reyhan el-Beyruni, Kitabü's-Saydana fi't-Tib. Türkçeye çeviren Esin Kahya, Ankara, Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi, 2011.
Handwritten Arabic edition in
Kitab al-.saydanah li-l-`allAma AbI al-rayhan mu.hammad bn a.hmad al-biruni, ta.hqIq al-.hakIm mu.hammad sa`id al-duktur rAnA 'i.hsAn liahI
[Dr Rana Ehsan Elahie, Prof., Univ. of Punjab], on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the birth of al-Biruni, Mu`assasa hamdar al-wa.taniyya, KarAtshI, pAkistAn, 1973 M. 430 pp. handwritten edition. This edition includes notes from different sources, not Biruni, that were added by the editor, see the corrections to this edition by Zaryab (see below), pp. XXI-XXIV.
Another (better) Arabic edition: Kitab al-.Saydana fi'l-.Tibb, Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni, edited and with introduction and notes by `Abbas Zaryab, Tehran 1991 (1370 A.H. solar), Iran University Press. Download. (Contents: pp. VII-VIII preface; pp. IX-LVIII , about the manuscript and the two copies of it, and on the sources of Biruni; pp. 1-641 Arabic text; pp. 643-808 sources and index).
Arabic edition of Al-Biruni's preface in M. Meyerhof, Das Vorwort der Drogenkunde des Beruni, Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 3 (1932), 157-208, reprinted in IMe 96, scan.
Arabic edition of parts of the work in pp. 108-142 of A.Zeki Validi Togan, Biruni's Picture of the World, Delhi 1941.

Translations:
English translation in Al-Biruni's Book on Pharmacy and Materia Medica, edited with English translation by Hakim Mohammad Said, Printed under the auspices of Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, Karachi, 1973. Vol. 1, 376 pp. See also the commentary in Al-Biruni's Book on Pharmacy and Materia Medica, introduction, commentary and evaluation, by Sami K. Hamarneh (Smithsonian Institution, Washington) Printed under the auspices of Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, Karachi 1973, 152 pp.
Persian translation by Baqir Mozaffarzadeh, based on the Russian translation by Karimov. Download this Persian translation. Contents: pp. 7-10: biography of Karimov, added by Mozaffarzade; pp. 11-14 Karimov's preface; pp. 15-40: description of the  Bursa manuscript and two copies of it; pp. 41-146: comprehensive study by Karimov about the sources of Biruni in his book; pp. 149-1011: persian trans. (from Russian) of the text; pp. 1015-1203 sources and index.
Russian translation by U.I. Karimov in Abu Raykhan Beruni: Farmakognoziya v meditsyne, vol. IV of Al-Biruni: Izbranniye Proizvedeniya, Tashkent 1973. This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 4.
Turkish translation of the preface in: Mehmed Yaltkaya Serafeddin, Kitâbü s-Saydala fi't-Tib Mukaddimesi, Istanbul 1937.
Turkish translation in: Ebu'r-Reyhan el-Beyruni, Kitabü's-Saydana fi't-Tib. Türkçeye çeviren Esin Kahya, Ankara, Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi, 2011, 2 vols. Vol. 1 is the Turkish translation, vol. 2 a facsimile edition of the manuscript in Bursa.
German translation of Al-Biruni's preface by Max Meyerhof, Das Vorwort der Drogenkunde des Beruni, Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 3 (1932), 157-208, reprinted in IMe 96, scan. See the reviews by Max Krause in Der Islam 22 (1935), 266-269, and by P. Kraus in Orientalistische Literatur-Zeitung 1934, No. 8/9, col. 537-541.
See also Ali Safari Agh Ghaleh, Do bakhs bazyafteh az asl-e arabi ketab al-saydana-ye Abu Rayhan Biruni (Two newly found fragments of Al-Biruni's al-Saydana), Miras-e Elmi vol. 4, spring-summer 1934/2015, pp. 93-98, download.
Edition of the medieval Persian translation by Abu Bakr ibn Ali Kasani (early seventh century H.), ed. Manuchehr Sotoodeh, Iraj Afshar, Tehran 1979, 1358 A.H. solar. 2 vols. [An earlier edition Tehran 1352 A.H. solar = 1973 CE only covers the pharmacological entries in the Arabic alphabet until the letter tha]

Arabic manuscript: Bursa, Kurshunlu Jami`, manuscript no. 45. This manuscript is defective; the work never reached its final form, except for the preface.
two copies of this manuscript were made in modern times: one copy in 1935 CE by the scribe Abd al-Razzaq Baghdadi (see Sotoudeh and Afshar, introduction p. vi-vii), this copy is now in Baghdad (maktabat al-mat.haf al-`irAqI no. 1191); and another copy for the German orientalist Meyerhof, this copy is now in Cairo, Dar al-Kutub al-Mi.sriyya, no. 3014 L, see Zaryab, Introduction p. xxi.

Persian manuscripts:
A medieval Persian translation by Abu Bakr ibn Ali Kasani (early seventh century H.) exists in several manuscripts:
Manisa (Turkey), Genel, 1789, (or 17890?)
London, British Museum, Or. 5849
Tehran, Majlis, 6616, see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 915.
Tehran, Foundation Logatname Dehkhoda (Daneshkade-ye Adabiyyat wa `Ulum-e Ensani Daneshgah-e Tehran) 197/2 [Nashriyya 12-3], see FANKHA vol. 8 p. 915.
Esfahan, Ketabkhane `UmumI Farhangi? apparently not mentioned in FANKHA
Aligarh ? No further information known to me.

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17. LENGTH OF LIFE ACCORDING TO INDIAN ASTROLOGY:, maqAla fI .hikAyat .tarIq ahl al-hind fI istikhrAj al-`umr, treatise on the explanation of the way of the Indian people for the derivation of the (length of) life. GAS VII, 92. Boilot no. 75 (cat. I, no. 3, number of leaves not indicated).

Arabic edition: Facsimile edition om: Z.V. Togan, Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni, Hikayat tariq ahl al-hind fi istixrac al-`umr, Isl. Tetk. Enst. Dergesi 1 (1954), 1-25, scan.

Translation: No translations of the work seem to have been published.

Arabic manuscript: Konya, Yusufaga 4989, f. 705-745. (document number 206925 on www.yazmalar.gov.tr)

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18. SHADOWS: ifrAd al-maqAl fi amr al-.zilAl, exhaustivs treatise on shadows, GAS V, 380 no. 1. RI p. 149-150 no. A4. Boilot no. 15 (cat. A no. 15, in 200 leaves according to al-Biruni).

Arabic edition: Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 2, (reprinted in IMA 32). Note that a fragment of the text (corresponding to six pages in the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468, namely ff. 125-130) is missing in this edition, but was printed elsewhere. Thus, on p. 5 line 10, between (a.haduhA) and (bi-annahA), one should place the text from p. 34 line 8 (min al-Akhar) until p. 63 line 4 tu.sifa from tract no. 3, "Fi harakat al-shams" [On the motions of the sun] in the publication Rasa'ilu ibn-i Sinan, by Ibrahim ibn Sinan b. Thabit b. Qurra al-Harrani, Containing Six Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, 1367 H./1948 A.D (reprinted in IMA 27). We also note that the pages 212-226 at the end of the edition have been wrongly numbered 112-126.
Scan of the Arabic text, in which the pages from "Fi harakat al-shams" have been included at the right place: Part 1,   Part 2.
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni.

Translations:
English translation: E.S. Kennedy, The Exhaustive Treatise on Shadows by Abu'l-Rayhhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, Aleppo 1976, 2 vols, download vol. 1 and vol. 2 (archive.org) . See also the review by G.J. Toomer in Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 69 (1978), 619-622.
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 7, Matematicheskie i astronomicheskie traktaty,Tashkent: Fan, 1987, tr. and comm. P. G. Bulgakov i B.A. Rozenfeld, pp. 121-255 (translation), pp. 286-325 (commentary). This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 7.

Studies
On Ch. 23: M. Davidian, al-Biruni on the time of day from shadow lengths, Journal of the Americal Oriental Society 80 (1960), pp. 330-335, reprinted SIES pp. 274-279, IMS 36, pp. 340-345, available online through http://www.jstor.org/stable/595882
Mark Lesley, Biruni on rising times and daylight lengths, Centaurus 5 (1957), pp. 121-141, reprinted in SIES pp. 253-273, IMA 36, pp. 319-339, available online (Wiley).
E.S.Kennedy, Biruni's graphical determination of the local meridian, Scripta Mathematica 24 (1959), 251-255, reprinted SIES 613-617 [on a construction due to Diodorus]
E.S. Kennedy, Al-Biruni on the Muslim times of prayer, in: The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abu’l-Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al- Din al-Rumi (Peter J. Chelkowski, ed.), New York (New York University Press) 1975, pp. 83-94. Reprinted: SIES, pp. 299-310.
Heinrich Hermelink, Bestimmung der Himmelsrichtungen aus einer einzigen Schattenbeobachtung nach al-Biruni, Sudhoff's Archiv 44 (1960), 329-332.

Arabic manuscript: Patna (India) Bankipore 2468, ff 194a-195, 125-130, 196-217, 220-293b. [Note that the manuscript does not contain pages 218, 219]
Scan of the manuscript. (complete, pages have been checked)
On the disorganized ms. see Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468, p. 145 (scan). Correction: f. 131 does not belong to the Shadows but to a text by Ibrahim ibn Sinan.

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19. TRANSITS: tamhId al-mustaqarr li-ta.hqIq ma`nA l-mamarr, smoothing the basis for the investigation of the notion of transit, GAS VI, 267 no. 3. RI p. 152 no. A16. Boilot no. 45 (cat. D, no. 4, in 60 leaves according to al-Biruni).
Mathematical explanation of the various astrological notions of transit.

Arabic editions: Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 3, (reprinted in IMA 32).
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni. Online version of tract 3 (on transits) only (wdl.org)

Translation: English translation in Al-Biruni on Transits. A study of an Arabic treatise entitled Tamhid al-Mustaqarr li-tahqiq ma`na al-mamarr by Al-Biruni. Translated by Muh. Saffouri and Adnan Ifram. With a commentary by E.S. Kennedy. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1959. Reprinted in IMA 33, download here (archive.org).

Studies:
G.J. Toomer, Notes on Al-Biruni on Transits, Orientalia 34 (1965), 45-72, also reprinted in IMA 33. Download this article via JSTOR or here (archive.org).
E.S. Kennedy, The Sasanian astronomical handbook Zij-i Shah and the astrological doctrine of transit (mamarr), Journal of the American Oriental Society 78 (1958), 246-262, reprinted in SIES 319-335, available online at http://www.jstor.org/stable/595788

Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Bankipore 2468, 245a-266b (631 H). Scan of the manuscript. The scan is complete and the order of the pages has been checked. Note: the scan contains two different copies of ff. 260b-261a. In the end of the file there are separate pictures of ff. 262b, 263a, 263b, 264a, 264b, 265a, 265b, 266a, 266b.
[Before the film was photographed, the ms was rebound again, the pages were shuffled at the end, and the correct numbers 263 through 266 were crossed out and changed into incorrect numbers 264 through 267]

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20. SOLAR EQUATION: maqAla fI l-ta.hlIl wa l-taq.tI` li l-ta`dIl, treatise on the analysis and the subdivision of the equation, GAS V, 381 no. 5. RI p. 152 no. A17. Boilot no. 11 (cat. A no. 11, in 70 leaves according to al-Biruni).
This treatise has come down to us in incomplete form, the beginning is missing.

Arabic edition: The extant pages (see below) were printed in Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 1, Istikhraj al-Awtar, the fragment begins with 219 line 16 (al-muhtawa), until p. 224 line 1 (`anhu) followed by 206 line 12 (fa-amma) until p. 209 line 10 (min) with figures 110-114, followed by p.108 line 14 (al-mutasawiyatayn) until p. 138 line 1 (sara), followed by p. 153 line 19 (lana) until p. 180 line 15 (ila) with figures 85-99 (reprinted in IMA 32).
Scan of the entire extant fragment in the Hyderabad edition, where the pages have been put in the correct order. (Please ignore the headings Istikhraj al-Awtar).
Online version of tract 1 (Istikhraj al-Awtar) (wdl.org) where the Arabic fragments of On the Solar Equation can be found at the indicated pages.
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni. A large part of the extant text was edited on p. 172 line 7 until p. 245 of Ahmed Said al-Dimirdash, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Istikhraj al-awtar fi l da'ira, Cairo 1965 Scan. Dimirdash did not realize that p. 172-245 in his book belonged to a text by al-Biruni (namely On the solar equation) different from the Chords in the circle   (Istikhraj al Awtar, text no. 8 above). For more details see Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468,(scan), pp. 147-149.

Translations:
Russian translation and commentary in Abu Raikhan Beruni, 973-1048, Izbrannye Proizvedenia, vol. 7, Matematicheskie i astronomicheskie traktaty, Tashkent: Fan, 1987, tr. and comm. P. G. Bulgakov i B.A. Rozenfeld, pp. 81-118 (translation), pp. 279-285 (commentary). This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, Tom 7.

Studies
Part of the treatise was discussed in E.S Kennedy, Ahmad Muruwwa, Biruni on the solar equation, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 17 (1958), 112-121, online version (JSTOR), reprinted in SIES pp. 603-612. [At that time, Kennedy and Muruwwa did not realize that the material belonged to Biruni's treatise on the solar equation]

Arabic manuscript: the extant fragment consists of the following leaves in Ms. Patna (India), Bankipore 2468: ff. 325, 322, 299-305, 309-316.
Scan of the manuscript. The order of the pages has been checked. Note: there are two pictures of f. 299b-300a.
On the identification of the fragment see Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468, p. 148, 149-152 (scan).
ISMI mentions another manuscript: Unknown (Mashhad), 5542, see https://ismi.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/witness/117823 Note, however, that RI p. 152 mentions the same Mashhad manuscript not under A17 but under A18 (see under fragment F10 in the present website), thus this Mashhad manuscript does not contain On the solar equation.

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21. ASYMPTOTES: maqAla fI an lawAzim tajazzu' al-maqAdIr ilA lA nihAya qarIba min amr al khattayn alladhayn yaqrubAn wa-la yaltaqiyAn fi l-istib`Ad, treatise on (the fact) that the consequences of the infinite subdivisibility of magnitudes are closely related to the issue of the two lines which approach but do not meet in the distance. GAS V, 383 no. 13. Boilot no. 67 (cat. H, no. 7, according to al-Biruni in 10 leaves).
Only a fragment of this text is extant; the beginning and end are missing.

Arabic edition: the text was printed in Rasa'il al-Biruni. Containing Four Tracts, Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau, tract no. 1, p. 180 line 15 farada until p. 184 line 12 B with figures 100-101 (reprinted in IMA 32).
Scan of the entire extant fragment in the Hyderabad edition, where only the text and figures which belong to the fragment have been displayed.
Online version of tract 1 (Istikhraj al-awtar) (wdl.org) where the Arabic fragment of this work can be found at the indicated pages.
Here is the whole Hyderabad edition of the four Rasa'il of al-Biruni.

Translations:
Russian translation in P.G. Bulgakov, A.A. Akhmedov, Beruni i al-Kindi o teorii parallel'nikh, Obshchestvennie nauki v Uzbekistane 8 (1977), 30-36.
On the fragment see also Jan P. Hogendijk, Rearranging the Arabic manuscript Bankipore 2468, p. 149, 158-159 (scan)

Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Bankipore 2468, one folio, 317ab. Scan of the manuscript..

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22. GHURRAT AL-ZIJAT:, Selection from (Indian) Zijes. GAS VI, 121. RI p. 152 no. A 19. DENA vol. 7 p. 778 (pdf version p. 8331). Not mentioned in al-Biruni's list of his own works.

Arabic editions:
1. Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka, ... by Abu al-Rayhan Mohammad ibn Ahmad al-Beruni. Prepared for publication by N.B. Baloch. Sind, Pakistan, 1973.   Download the Arabic part
here (archive.org);   Download the introduction in English.
2. Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka, by Abu al-Rayhan Mohammad ibn Ahmad al-Beruni. Edited by M.F. Quraishi. Lahore: University of the Punjab, 1978.   Scan.
3. A set of articles by S.H. Rizvi: A unique and unknown book of Al-Beruni, Islamic Culture 37 (1963) 112-130, 167-187, 223-245; 38 (1964) 47-74, 195-212; 39 (1965) 1-26, 137-180.
Scans: Part 1,   Parts 2 and 3,   Part 4,   Part 5,   Part 6,   Part 7 (the quality of the last scan is very poor).

Translations:
English translations of the work can be found in:
1. Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka, by Abu al-Rayhan Mohammad ibn Ahmad al-Beruni. Edited by M.F. Quraishi. Lahore: University of the Punjab, 1978.   Scan.
2. A set of articles by S.H. Rizvi: A unique and unknown book of Al-Beruni, Islamic Culture 37 (1963) 112-130, 167-187, 223-245; 38 (1964) 47-74, 195-212; 39 (1965) 1-26, 137-180.
Scans: Part 1,   Parts 2 and 3,   Part 4,   Part 5,   Part 6,   Part 7 (the quality of the last scan is very poor).

Arabic manuscript: Library of the Mausoleum of Pir Mohammad Shah, Ahmedabad, India. A facsimile of this manuscript is in the editions by Baloch and Quraishi.

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23. FAKHRI SEXTANT: .hikAyat al-Ala al-musammA al-suds al-fakhrI `alA mA .hakAhu abu ray.hAn ayyadahu allAh ba`da 'an shAhadahu, explanation of the instrument called Fakhri Sextant (named after a ruler, Fakhr al-Dawla) according to what Abu Rayhan (Biruni) explained after he had seen it. GAS VI, 269 no. 13. RI p. 151 no. A15. Boilot no. 169 (not mentioned in al-Biruni's own list of works)
This text, which is a description of an instrument constructed by al-Khujandi for Fakhr-al-Dawla. Mr. Shirazi remarks that it is not a separate work by Biruni but it was probably adapted from Biruni, Coordinates , ed. Bulgakov and Ahmad p. 101-102.

Arabic edition:
Arabic edition in L. Cheikho, Risalat al-Khojandi fI l-mayl wa-`ar.d al-balad, Mashriq 11 (1908), 61-69, scan.. The text by al-Biruni is on pp. 68-68.

Translations:
Persian translation by Baqir Mozaffarzadeh, published in Khojandi-Nameh, Ayene-ye Miras New Series, Supplement 26 (1391 A.H. solar, 2012) see announcement. The translation is based on a Russian publication by Khorshid Abdollah-Zadeh.
There exists a Russian translation by Khorshid Abdollah-Zadeh (no further information available).
See: E. Wiedemann, Über den Sextant des al-Chogendi, Archiv für geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik 2 (1910), 149.

Arabic manuscript: Beirut, St. Joseph 223/2
Scan of the manuscript (very poor quality)
Mr. Fariborz Shirazi points out to me that the treatise was not written by Biruni himself, although it represents authentic Biruni material.

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24. ASTROLOGICAL LOTS: maqAla fi sayr sahmay al-sa`Ada wa-l-ghayb, treatise on the motion of the arrows of fortune and disappearance. GAS VII, 190 no. 3. RI p. 152 no. A20, which is the same as RI suppl. 1 p. 95 no. A57. Boilot no. 76 (cat. I, no. 4, number of leaves not indicated).

Arabic edition:
Facsimile edition of the Oxford manuscript in F.I.Haddad, D.Pingree and E.S.Kennedy, al-Biruni's treatise on astrological lots, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 1 (1984), 9-54.

Translations:
English translation also in F.I.Haddad, D.Pingree and E.S.Kennedy, al-Biruni's treatise on astrological lots, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 1 (1984), 9-54.

Arabic manuscript: Oxford, Bodleian, Seld. 3144, 11/3 (86b-93b).

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25. TREATISE ON THE WORKS OF MUHAMMAD ZAKARIYYA AL-RAZI:. Boilot no. 168. DENA vol. 7, p. 1251 (pdf version pp. 8804-8805), FANHKA vol. 24 p. 610. Appended to this treatise is al-Biruni's list of his own works, see above.

Arabic edition: P. Kraus, Epitre de Beruni contenant le répertoire des ouvrages de Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Paris 1936, scan.
Another edition in Fehrest ketabha-ye Razi wa-namha-ye ketabha-ye Biruni, tashih wa-tarjome wa-ta`liq Mehdi Mohaghghegh, Tehran 1371 A.H. (solar)/ 1992-3, Entesharat Daneshgah-e Tehran no. 1406/3232. scan.

Translations:
German translation: J. Ruska, al-Biruni als Quelle fuer das Leben und die Schriften al-Razi's, Isis 5 (1923), 26-50. Available here (archive.org) and here. (JSTOR)
Persian translation: Fehrest ketabha-ye Razi wa-namha-ye ketabha-ye Biruni, tashih wa-tarjome wa-ta`liq Mehdi Mohaghghegh, Tehran 1371 A.H. (solar)/ 1992-3, Entesharat Daneshgah-e Tehran no. 1406/3232, scan.

Arabic manuscript: Leiden, Or. 133/2, f. 33-48. This manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers (Leiden). The following treatise Or. 133/3 (f. 49-65) by Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Ghadanfar al-Tibrizi (dealing with Biruni) has also been digitized.
Note: Another recent (1334 A.H.lunar) manuscript (Tehran, Majlis, 6511/17) mentioned under FANKHA vol. 24 p. 610 is unrelated to Al-Biruni's treatise, because it seems to contain a different collection of works by Razi and others (Biruni, Ibn Sina, etc.) taken from various bibliographic works.

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26. FACILITATING THE USE OF THE (DIFFERENT) TYPES OF ASTROLABES: maqala fI al-ta.trIq bi-isti`mAl funUn al-as.turlAbAt, treatise on facilitating the use of the types of astrolabes, GAS VI, 269 no. 11. RI p. 151 no. A11. Not mentioned in al-Biruni's own list of works.
This is a genuine work by al-Biruni, consisting of a long introduction (in which al-Biruni cites many earlier works on the astrolabe, including his own) and 21 short chapters on various operations with the astrolabe.
The Arabic text of this work begins as follows: al-a.s.turlAb ashraf al-AlAt allatI bihA ya.dba.tu .haqA'iq al-awqAt ... (The astrolabe is the noblest instrument by means of which the times are determined precisely ...)

Arabic edition: Pouyan Rezvani, Two treatises on the astrolabe by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni (973-1048), PhD thesis, Utrecht University, 2019.

English translation: Pouyan Rezvani, Two treatises on the astrolabe by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni (973-1048), PhD thesis, Utrecht University, 2019.

Arabic manuscript: Paris B.N. 2498, ff. 1-62. digital version of the whole codex at https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10037480t?rk=171674;4 (gallica.fr)
RI p. 151 no. A11 mentions another manuscript Cairo, mIqAt 914, but this "manuscript" is a set of photos of the Paris ms. B.N. 2498, ff. 1-62, see King, Survey, p. 48.
The text is mentioned by Shlomo Pines, La théorie de la rotation de la terre à l'époque d'Al-Biruni, Journal Asiatique 244 (1956) pp. 301-305, reprinted in IMA 36 pp. 313-317; same paper also in Actes du VIIi Congrès International d'Histoire des Sciences, Florence-Milan 3-9 Sept. 1956, p. 299-303. Persian translation by Behnaz Hashemipour in Ma`arif vo. 13 no. 2 (Nov. 1996) pp. 43-47.

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C. Correspondence (letters by al-Biruni or letters to him)


For letters by Abu Nasr ibn `Iraq see category N below.

C1. (Part of) a letter to Abu Sa`id al-Sijzi on the spherical sine theorem of Abu Nasr ibn `Iraq, GAS V, 339 no. 5 (where it is presented as a work by Abu Nasr ibn `Iraq), GAS VI, 272 no. 20. RI p. 147 no. M9. RI p. 115 no. M7 (as a work by Abu Nasr ibn `Iraq) Boilot no. 180.
Arabic edition with English and Turkish translation: A. Sayili, Ebû Nasr Mansur'un Sinüs Kanununun Taniti Üzerine Beyrunî'nin Mektubu, in: Beyrunî'ye Armagan, Ankara 1974, pp. 169-207. pdf.
German translation in H. Suter, Zur Trigonometrie der Araber, Bibliotheca Mathematica 10 (1909-10), pp. 156-160, reprinted in Heinrich Suter, Beiträge, vol. 2, pp. 275-279. scan.
Arabic manuscript: Leiden, Or. 168/15, 134b-136a, see Witkam p. 73 (without the attribution to al-Biruni).
The manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers. The name Abu'l-Rayhan is mentioned at the end.
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C2. Letter by al-Biruni on the methods for finding the qibla by Habash al-Hasib and Abu Nasr ibn `Iraq, GAS VI, 272 no. 21
English translation and facsimile of the Arabic ms: E.S. Kennedy and Yusuf Id, A letter of al-Biruni: Habash al-Hasib's Analemma for the Qibla, Historia Mathematica 1 (1974), 3-11, reprinted in SIES pp. 621-629. Download the article (Elsevier Open Archive).
Arabic manuscript: Leiden, Or. 168, 136a-137b, see Witkam p. 73.
The manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers.
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C3. Answers by Ibn Sina to 18 questions by al-Biruni.
Boilot no. 147. RI p. 156 no. PH1, see also under Ibn Sina RI p. 126 no. PH1.
The bibliographical references on these questions and answers are confused. They consist of:
(a) 10 questions by al-Biruni with answers by Ibn Sina on Aristotle, De Caelo;
(b) 8 other questions by al-Biruni with answers by Ibn Sina on natural philosophy;
(c) Objections by al-Biruni to most of the answers which Ibn Sina had given to him, and answers to these objections by Abu Sa`id al-Ma`sumi, a student of Ibn Sina.
Other questions to Ibn Sina have been attributed to al-Biruni but probably incorrectly so, see the Discussions with Ibn Sina II below.

Arabic edition of (a)+(b)+(c): Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Mohaghegh, Al-As'ilah wa'l-Ajwibah, Tehran 1352 A.H. (solar)/ 1973 Download
Reprint: Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 1995. This is essentially a reprint of earlier editions, including one published in Tehran, 1973.Download.
Arabic edition of (a) and Turkish translation by Muhammad Tanci: in Beyrunî'ye armagan, Ankara 1974, pp. 231-302. Download. This contains criticisms of the earlier edition of the text by Nasr and Mohaghegh.

Translations:
Partial English translation: A. Bausani, Some considerations on three problems of the Anti-Aristotelian Controversy between al-Biruni and Ibn Sina, Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, 3. Folge nr. 98, Göttingen 1976, pp. 74-85.
Persian translation in `Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, Sharh-e hal-e nabigha-ye shahir-e Iran Abu Rayhan .. al-Biruni, Tehran 1324 A.H. (solar) [1945], 1352 A.H [solar] (1973). Majalla Amuzesh wa-parwaresh, volume 15, nrs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, the same also in Lughat-name (this information taken from Qorbani, Tahqiqi, p. 447)
Russian translation by Yu. N. Zavdovskov in I.M. Muminov, red., Materialy po istorii progressivnoy obshchestvenno-filosofskoy mysli v Uzbekistane, Tashkent 1957, pp. 128-162, see also I.M. Muminova and M. M. Khayrullayeva, red., Materialy po istorii progressivnoy obshchestvenno-filosofskoy mysli v Uzbekistane, 2-e izd., Tashkent 1976, pp. 240-265.
Russian translation also in Beruni i IbnSina. Perepiska, ed. I.M. Muminov, Tashkent, Fan, 1973. This translation can be downloaded from http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/B/BIRUNI_Abu_Reyhan/_Biruni_A.R..html#001, scroll down.
Uzbek translation: Biruniy blan Ibn Sinaning savol javoblari, A. Rasolov va M. Abdurahmanov tarjimasi, Toshkent 1947, 1973.
Partial English translation in S.H. Nasr, An introduction to Islamic cosmological doctrines, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1964.
Partial German translation in G. Strohmaier, Al-Biruni: In den Gärten der Wissenschaft, Leipzig 1988.
List of translated questions: (Notation: Nasr= S.H. Nasr, An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, ; Stroh= G. Strohmaier, Al-Biruni: In den Gärten der Wissenschaft).
(a) Questions 1-10 about Aristotle's De Caelo: 1. heaviness or lightness of celestial sphere Nasr (IICS) 168-170; 2. reliance on ancients Strohmaier 49-51, Nasr 167 (fragment); 3. Why six directions? -; 4. Indivisibles: Nasr 170-171; 5. Other worlds: Strohmaier 51-56, Nasr 168 (apparently from another version of the text: - in Persian?); 6. Egg-shape and lentil-shape Nasr 170; 7. Right side and East: -; 8. Heavens generate heat: -; 9. Does heat of the sun reach us? Strohmaier 56-58; 10. Transformation of things: Strohmaier 58-60, Nasr IICD 172;
(b) The subsequent eight questions by Biruni (numbered 11-18) 11 Spherical vessel burns if filled with water, not if filled with air: Strohmaier 60-61; 12. Do all elements move downward or do air and fire move upward? Strohmaier 61-62; 13. How is vision possible? - ; 14. Why is only one quarter of the earth (half of the Northern hemisphere) settled? Strohmaier 62-63; 15. How are two opposite squares tangential? -; 16. If air is sucked out of a flask, why does water rise in it? Strohmaier 63-64; 17. Why does a flask filled with water break if the water freezes? Strohmaier 64-65; 18. Why does ice float on water? -

Arabic manuscripts:
(a): Istanbul, Feyzullah 2188/3, ff. 211-236, (document number 184286 on www.yazmalar.gov.tk)
(a): Leiden Or. 184/9, ff. 65b-83a, see Witkam vol. 1, p. 80. THe manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers.
(a): Istanbul, Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III, 3447
(a)+(b)+(c): Tehran, Majlis Library, 599
(a)+(b)+(c): Tehran, Majlis Library, 1968.
Istanbul, Aya Sofya 4853, ending at 18a (or b)
Istanbul, Feyzullah 2188/3, ff. 211-236, see the information on www.yazmalar.gov.tk
Princeton University, Oriental manuscripts, Garrett collection, Yehuda (number unclear to me) Digital version (if this link does not work, first go to the page http://www.jphogendijk.nl/biruni.html#Disc1, which is the same as the page you are looking at.) Once you have reached the digital version, scroll down; the text begins in image 10). You can also download a high-resolution photo of each image (size 10 MB)
Many more Arabic manuscripts are mentioned in the bibliographical works RI etc. ISMI also mentions: Tehran, Majlis 429, 2785, 2827, and Tehran University Central Library and Documentation CTR 866-868.

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C4. Answers by Abu'l-Jud to four mathematical questions by al-Biruni.
Arabic edition of all four questions with French translation in R. Rashed, Les constructions géométriques entre géométrie et algèbre: l'épître d'Abu'l-Jud à al-Biruni, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 20 (2010), pp. 1-51.
Arabic edition and English translation of the third question in Jan P. Hogendijk, Abu'l-Jud's answer to a question by al-Biruni on the regular heptagon in David A. King, George Saliba, ed., From Deferent to Equant: A volume of studies in the History of Science in the Ancient and Medieval near East in Honor of E.S. Kennedy, New York 1987, pp. 175-183. Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Leiden, Or. 168/4, ff. 45a-54a, see Witkam p. 73. The manuscript has been digitized by Brill Publishers.
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F. List of fragments or texts which have not yet been studied and which may or may not be parts of other (extant or lost) works by al-Biruni:

Note: this list is mainly based on the new manuscript catalogues DENA and FANKHA which have been published in Iran. It is likely that not all of these "fragments" are genuine. Texts by Biruni may also be found in manuscripts which are anonymous (two anonymous astrolabe texts have already been identified as works by Biruni in the course of the preparation of this website).

F1. Depression of the horizon, istikhrAj qadr al-ar.d bi-ra.sad in.hi.ta.t al-ufq `an qimam al-jibAl, Derivation of the size of the earth by observing the depression of the horizon on the tops of mountains, RI p. 154 no. G4, Boilot no. 24 (cat. B, no. 6, in 60 leaves according to al-Biruni)
According to RI, a fragment is contained at the end of Biruni's work on Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe (on the basis of Ms. Berlin 5794 = Petermann I 672). This is however incorrect because the "fragment" is one of the last chapters of the work Realizing the potentialities of the astrolabe itself. The information in ISMI is incorrect.
It is correct to say that no manuscripts or fragments of the work "Derivation of the size of the earth by observing the depression of the horizon on the tops of mountains" have yet been found.

F2. Wisdom of Abu Rayhan: .hikmat abI ray.hAn; an unknown work by al-Biruni, apparently with this title, and on medicine (?) was apparently auctioned by Sotheby's in 2010, see the information (with picture of the first page (?)) on the website of Sotheby, or document nr. Sotheby-20101006-Arts-034-045-No-32-48.pdf on www.islamicmanuscripts.info, lot no. 33. The work may or may not be genuine.

F3. Foundations of Astrology maqAla fi irshAd ilA ta.s.hI.h al-mabAdi'. GAS VII, p. 190 no. 4. Boilot no. 77 (cat I, no. 5, 50 leaves; the identification is uncertain). DENA vol. 3, p. 3 (pdf version 2498), FANKHA vol. 8, p. 300.
Arabic manuscript: a fragment in Tehran, Daneshgah 5469, 16a-17b.
DENA and FANKHA mention only the ms. Yazd, `Olumi, Shaykh Ali 64/4; this must be the same as the manuscript in Tehran, Daneshgah 5469/4.
Fuat Sezgin found two fragments in an anonymous Zij (Dustur al-Munajjimin) Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Arabe 5968, 183b, 186a-b (source: F.Sezgin in GAS VII). On f. 183b the chapter is called namUdar fI isqA.t al-nu.tfaT fI l-irshAd li-AbI al-Ray.hAn, rule for finding the (moment) of conception according to the IrshAd of Abu Rayhan. On f. 186a-b the chapter in question is called al-fa.sl al-khAmis min al-irshAd li-Abi al-Ray.hAn (the fifth chapter, from the Irshad by Abu Rayhan) and with subtitle al-irshAd `alA mA i`taqadnAhu fI ta.s.hI.h al-mabAdi' (the Irshad according to what we believe in the correction of the beginnings).

F4. Determination of the direction of the qibla, ma`rifat samt al-qibla. GAS VI, 269 no. 12, Ghas/Pay p. 652, 1051. DENA vol. 9 p. 894 (pdf version p. 11028) mentions this text as ma`rifat samt al-qibla = isti`mAl al-as.turlAb.
(not mentioned by al-Biruni in the list of his own works.)
Ghas-Pay p. 652 mentions a text by al-Biruni entitled " samt al-qibla" Isfahan, Ketahkhana-ye marhum muhammad baqir ulfat isfahani, see Name-ye Baharestan, first year no. 2, summer 1379, p. 136;
Ghas-Pay vol. 2 p. 1051 mentions another text by al-Biruni entitled "ma`rifat samt al-qibla", ms. Isfahan, Daneshkade-ye Adabiyat 34/3, Nashriya vol. 5 p. 303. and ms. Tehran, Daneshkade-ye Ilahiyat 341/2. It is likely that this last manuscript is the source of Muzaffari's edition in Ta.s.hI.h wa-shar.h bAb fI ma`rifaT samt al-qibla li-abI ray.hAn al-bIrUnI (in Persian) in the journal Tarikh-e Elm 5 (no. 1) , sommer 1385 A.H. (solar)/2007, pp. 59-82, Digital version. This seems to be a small chapter added to one or more mss. of Realizing the Potentials of the astrolabe (no. 5 of this website). The fragment with an approximation construction, which was well-known in the Islamic tradition, is unlikely to bea genuine work of Biruni. Mozaffari mentions three mss. on page 64 and has a facsimile of one page on p. 80.
DENA vol.9 p. 894 also Isfahan, Daneshgah-e Esfahan, ms. 286/3 [Nashriya 11-936] and two films in Tehran of unspecified other manuscripts.
A short treatise entitled ma`rifat samt al-qibla li-Abi Rayhan is in ms. London British Library Add Ms 23570, 91v-92r, see digital version on the Qatar Digital Library. This treatise is a fragment of the Coordinates (no. 14 above), corresponding to the Arabic edition of Bulgakov pp. 273-275 (the figure is missing in the London ms), the translation of Jamal Ali pp. 241-243, and the commentary by E.S. Kennedy pp. 198-201 section 103 (first method).
The other manuscripts may or may not contain the same fragment, or fragments of the works which al-Biruni mentions in the list of his own works (Boilot nos. 28-33).

F5. Treatise on the construction of the astrolabe, maqAla fI .san`at al-as.turlAb. GAS VI, 269 no. 9. Not mentioned in al-Biruni's own list of works. This is the same as the maqAla fI .sifaT al-as.turlAb of DENA vol. 9 p. 1116 (pdf version 11250) and FANKHA vol. 3 p. 459.
Arabic manuscript: Tehran, Daneshgah 5469/1, ff 1b-8a. This is the same as Yazd, `Olumi, Shaykh Ali 64/1 (Nashriyya 448-4). Beginning of the text: idhA 'aradnA dhAlika nattakhidhu dA'iraT madAr ra's al-jadI dA'itaT `alayhA A-B-G-D
ISMI gives Tehran, Central Library and Documentation CTR 5469, which must be the same as Tehran, Daneshgah 5469.

F6. The day, the daylight and the night al-yawm wa-l-nahAr wa-al-layl, see DENA vol. 10, p. 1259 (pdf version p. 12667)
Arabic manuscript Tehran, Malik, 6075/13, ff. 16b-25a.
Related to Boilot no. 28? Boilot no. 155? This can only be solved by inspecting the ms.

F7. (Astrological) choices of days, ikhtiArAt al-ayyAm see DENA vol. 1, p. 431 (pdf version p. 556), FANKHA vol. 2 p. 403, according to which this is fa.sl-e chaharom dar bayAn ikhtiyArAt-e manAzil bi-jadwal ustAd Abu Ray.han, "the fourth section on the explanation of the choices of the mansions by the table of the Master Abu Rayhan". FANKHA notes that this work is essentially a table by Biruni taken from some other (extant or lost) work. Could this be the Tafhim?
Persian manuscript: Meshed, Shaykh Ali, Haydaresh 32/14.

F8. On the representation of stars and localities in any circle we wish, fI ta.swIr al-kawAkib wa l-buldAn fi ay da'iratin aradna. GAS VI, 268 no. 5. RI p. 146 no. M6. DENA vol. 8 p. 475 (pdf version p. 9308).
Arabic manuscript: Tehran, Daneshgah 5469/2, f. 8b-9a, 557 H
RI mentions only the ms. Tehran `Ulumi 64/2: this is the same manuscript.
DENA and FANKHA (vol. 8 p. 335) only mentions Yazd, Shaykh Ali, `Ulumi 64/2, see Nashriyya 448/4: this is also the same manuscript.
Arabic text begins: idhA aradnA an nu.sawwira mau.di` aiy kaukabin aradnA fI l-samA' aw aiy baladin fI l-ar.d
This text is probably a fragment of a larger work.

F9. The proof of a problem of the book of Archimedes, al-burhAn `alA mas'ala min kitAb arshimIdis. GAS V, 382 no. 14.
Manuscript: Tehran, Daneshgah 1751, 65a. DENA vol. 9 p. 508 mentions this problem of a book of Archimedes and the manuscript Tehran, Daneshgah 1751/5 without reference to Al-Biruni.

F10. Celestial globe risAla dar ma`rifat-i aftAb az kura (Persian), Treatise on the Knowledge of the Sun by means of the Globe. Mentioned by RI p. 152 no. A18. Is this a genuine text by Al-Biruni?
Arabic manuscript: Meshed 5542 (mentioned by RI). Is the reference correct?

F11. Treatise on geometry risAla fI'l-handasa, see DENA vol. 10, p. 1202, pdf version 12610. Manuscript Tehran, Da'irat al-Ma`arif ms. 1927/ are photos of another manuscript which is not mentioned and which may be outside Iran. This has to be checked with FANKHA.

F12. Treatise on the astrolabe, risAla fi'l-as.turlAb. RI p. 150 no. A8. Mentioned by Krause, p. 480. as (Istanbul) "Asir Reisülküttab 577 (unzugänglich, im Ewqafmuseum)." The manuscript has been rediscovered recently by Hüseyin Sen in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art in Istanbul, and shown to be a manuscript of the Full discussion (ISti`ab), text no. 5. According to ISMI this is in the Süleymaniye Library, Asir Efendi 577 but this is incorrect: the relevant part of the collection Asir Effendi is in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art.

F13. Letter on the computation of the lunar and solar eclipse, risAla fI istikhrAj al-khusUf wa-l-kusuf, and Table of arrows, jadwal al-sihAm, manuscript Istanbul, Nuruosmaniye 2933, 115a-116b and 123b-124a. These may be fragments of larger works. Whether these fragments are genuine can only be decided after inspection of the manuscript.

F14. Book on the quicksilver of the west kitAb zaybak al-gharb, and Book on the Earth kitAb al-ar.d, in Istanbul Millet Ali Emiri Arabi 2833, ff. 4-7 and ff. 10-13 (?) Whether these works (or small fragments) are genuine can only be decided after inspection of the manuscripts.

F15. Commentary on the Short Poem Shar.h al-tA'iyati al-.sughrA, manuscript Istanbul Süleymaniye, Hekimoglu 643. It seems unlikely that this is a genuine work by al-Biruni but the manuscript has to be inspected to rule out the possibility.

F16. Divine things on the moon ilAhiyAt dar Qamar

is mentioned in ISMI, manuscript Istanbul, Süleymaniye Library, Aya Sofya 4840, f. 87-88; a short Persian treatise, but is it genuine?

F17. Letter on the truth of the astrolabe, Risalah-ye .haqIqat-e us.turlAb, mentioned by RI p. 151 no. 348 no. A10, in Persian (see also ISMI), with two manuscripts: Hyderabad, Oriental Mss. Library and Research Institute Asafiya RIyada 328, and Salar Jang, Hay'a Arabic no. 34. This has to be inspected.

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L. Lost works

known through (substantial) quotations by al-Biruni himself or by later authors.

L1. Interpolation method . A fragment on interpolation methods and the Indian sankalita method is quoted and then crititized by al-Samaw'al ibn Yahya al-Maghribi in Chapter 7 of his work Kashf `iwAr almunajjimIn (Disclosure of the Errors of the Astronomers), written in561 A.H. / 1165-6 CE. Arabic manuscripts in Leiden, Or. 98, and Oxford, Bodleian Library, Huntington 539.
Arabic edition and French translation in R. Rashed, Al-Samaw'al, al-Biruni et Brahmagupta: des méthodes d'interpolation, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 1 (1991), pp. 101-160, reprinted in R. Rashed, Optique et mathématiques, Aldershot, Variorum Reprints, 1992, no. XII.


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N. Ten works written by his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur ibn `Ali ibn `Iraq (abU na.sr man.sUr ibn `alI ibn `irAq) in his [al-Biruni's] name

In the list of his own works, Al-Biruni mentioned a number of works written by others "in his name" (for him?). Ten of the twelve works of this type by his teacher Abu Nasr ibn Iraq are extant in full or in part. These works are letters by Abu Nasr ibn Iraq to al-Biruni. They will be listed here in the order in which they are mentioned in Al-Biruni's list of his own works (no 1. above), and numbered N1, N2, etc. until N10. N11 and N12 are other extant letters or fragments by Abu Nasr to al-Biruni which al-Biruni did not mention in his list of works. N13-N16 are other works by Abu Nasr, whose contents are related to some of the previous ones.
Max Krause compiled a short biography and list of works of Abu Nasr ibn Iraq on pp. 109-116 of his Die Sphärik von Menelaus aus Alexandrien in der Verbesserung von Abu Nasr Mansur b. `Ali b. Iraq, Berlin 1936.

N1. Book on Azimuths, kitAb fi'l-sumUt. GAS V, 340 no. 7. RI p. 114 no. M5 (where it is identified with the work N4 below. The identification is incorrect because Al-Biruni lists N1 and N4 as different works in his list of works.) Boilot no. 114.
Only fragments of this work have come down to us.

N2. Letter on the proofs of the procedures of Habash (al-Hasib) in the Table of Position, risAla fI barAhIn a`mAl .habash al-.hAsib bi-jadwal al-taqwIm. GAS VI, 243 no. 1. RI p. 115 no. A4. Boilot no. 117.
Arabic edition: Tract 4 (71 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 50b-66b. Unique. Scan of the manuscript.
Studies: Rida A.K. Irani, The Jadwal al-Taqwim of Habash al-Hasib, PhD thesis, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1956.
Paul Kunitzsch, Richard Lorch, Abu Nasr and Habash on Ma.tali` al-samt, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 9 (1994), pp. 43-82.

N3. Letter on the correction of the errors which occurred to Abu Ja`far al-Khazin in his Tables of Plates, risAla fI ta.s.hI.h mA waqa`a li-AbI Ja`far al-KhAzin min al-sahw fI Zij al-.safA'i.h. GAS VI, 243 no. 3. RI p. 115 no. A5. Boilot no. 118.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 3 (50 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 66b-75b. Unique. Scan of the manuscript.
Studies: M. Th. Debarnot, Introduction du triangle polaire par Abu Nasr ibn `raq, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 2 (1978), pp. 126-136.

N4. Letter on the intersections of the azimuthal circles on the astrolabe, risAla fI majAzAt dawA'ir al-sumUt fi'l-as.turlAb. GAS VI, 243 no. 6. RI p. 114 no. M5 (where it incorrectly identified with the Book on Azimuths, that is the work N1 above). Boilot no. 119.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 14 (27 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Spanish translation in Julio Samsó Estudios sobre Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Barcelona 1969 pp. 89-104; commentary pp. 49-53.
Arabic manuscripts:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 79b-83b. Scan of the manuscript.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Thurston 3, ff. 124a-126b.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marsh 713, 247a-251a (a later copy of the Thurston 3 manuscript).
Studies: J. Len Berggren, Medieval Islamic methods for drawing azimuth circles on the astrolabe, Centaurus 34 (1991), pp. 309-344; J. Len Berggren, Habash's Analemma for representing azimuth circles on the astrolabe, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 7 (1991-2), pp. 23-30.

N5. Letter on the Table of Minutes, risAla fI jadwal al-daqA'iq. GAS VI 243 no. 7. RI p. 115 no. A7. Boilot no. 120.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 5 (40 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Analysis: Claus Jensen, Abu Nasr Mansur's approach to spherical astronomy as developed in his treatise "the table of minutes". Centaurus 16 (1972), pp. 1-19. Download (Wiley).
Arabic manuscripts:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 86b-93b. Scan of the manuscript.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Thurston 3, ff. 111a-115a
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marsh 713, 221a-231a (a later copy of the Thurston 3 manuscript).

N6. Letter on the proofs of the procedure of Muhammad ibn al-Sabbah on the correction [i.e., equation] of the sun, risAla fi'l-barAhIn `alA `amal mu.hammad ibn al-.sabA.h fI mtihAn al-shams. GAS VI, 244 no. 4. RI p. 115 no. A8. Boilot no. 121.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 2 (15 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Spanish translation in Julio Samsó Estudios sobre Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Barcelona 1969 pp. 121-133, commentary pp. 59-66 (including a comparison with works by al-Biruni)
Arabic manuscript:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 93b-96b. Scan of the manuscript.
The manuscript London, India Office, 734/2, f. 10a, mentioned by RI, is a fragment of another text (N17 below), as pointed out by Sezgin in GAS VI, 244 no. 9.


Studies: E.S. Kennedy, Haydar Sharkas, Two medieval methods for determining the obliquity of the ecliptic, Mathematics Teacher 55 (1962), 286-290, reprinted in SIES p. 517-521.

N7. Letter on the circles which define the seasonal hours, risAla fI'l-dawA'ir allatI ta.huddu al-sA`At al-zamAniyya. GAS VI, 243 no. 8. RI p. 115 no. A9. Boilot no. 122.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 1 (13 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Spanish translation in Julio Samsó Estudios sobre Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Barcelona 1969 pp. 105-114, commentary pp. 53-58.
Arabic manuscripts:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 96b-98b. Scan of the manuscript.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Thurston 3, ff. 126b-128a
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marsh 713, 251a-253b (a later copy of the Thurston 3 manuscript).

N8. Letter on the proof of the procedure of Habash [al-Hasib] on the ascensions of the azimuth in his astronomical handbook, risAla fi'l-burhAn `alA `amal .habash fI ma.tAli` al-samt fI zIjihi. GAS VI, 243 no. 2. RI p. 115 no. A10. Boilot no. 123.
Arabic edition and English translation in Paul Kunitzsch, Richard Lorch, Abu Nasr and Habash on Ma.tali` al-samt, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften 9 (1994), pp. 43-82.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 11 (9 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 99a-100a. Unique. Scan of the manuscript.

N9. Letter on the knowledge of the arcs on the sphere by a method other than the method of compounded ratios, risAla fI ma`rifat al-qisI al-falakiyya bi-.tarIq ghayr .tarIq al-nisba al-mu'allafa. GAS V, 339 no. 3. RI p. 115 no. M6. Boilot no. 124.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 8 (13 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscripts:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 100b-103a.Scan of the manuscript.
Manisa (Turkey), 1706/15, 245b-249a.
Studies: Paul Luckey, Zur Entstehung der Kugeldreiecksrechnung, Deutsche Mathematik 5 (1941), pp. 405-446. Scan.

N10. Letter on the resolution of a doubt which occurred in the thirteenth [book] of the Book of Euclid [on the Elements], risAla fI .hall shubhatin `ara.dat fi'l-thAlitha `ashara min kitAb uqlIdis. GAS V, 339 no. 1. RI p. 114 no. M2. Boilot no. 125.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 7 (6 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscripts:
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 109b-110b. Scan of the manuscript.
Manisa (Turkey), 1706/13 ff. 238a-239a.
Tehran, Malik Library, 3433/2
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Ahlwardt 5925, ff. 74b-75b. Mf. (= Ms. Or. fol.) 258/10. See Ahlwardt catalogue vol. 5 p. 314.
Study: G.P. Matvievskaya, New information on the mathematical creativity of Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Iraq (treatise on regular polyhedra) , Uzbeklskii Matematicheskii Zhurnal 2 (1996), pp. 59-68 [not seen] probably refers to this text.

N11. Letter of Abu Nasr ibn Iraq ... to al-Biruni on the answer to geometrical questions which he [al-Biruni] asked,, Risala abI na.sr ibn `alI ibn `irAq mawlA 'amIr al-mu'minIn ilA abi'l-ray.hAn mu.hammad ibn a.hmad al-bIrUnI fi'l-jawAb `an masA'il handasiyya sa'alahu `anhA. This letter is not mentioned in al-Biruni's list of his own works. GAS V p. 339 no. 4, RI p. 114 no. M3, Boilot no. 178.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 10 (21 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscripts: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 103a-106b. Scan of the manuscript.
Manisa (Turkey), 1706/14, 239b-245a.
Arabic edition and English translation of the beginning (first three problems) in R. Rashed, Geometry and Dioptrics in Classical Islam, London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2005, pp. 808-815.


N12. Chapter from a book by Abu Nasr ibn Iraq ... to al-Biruni on the spherical shape of the heavens,, fa.sl min kitAb li-abI na.sr ibn `alI ibn `irAq mawlA 'amIr al-mu'minIn ilA abi'l-ray.hAn mu.hammad ibn a.hmad al-bIrUnI fI kurriyat al-samA'. This book is not mentioned in al-Biruni's list of his own works. GAS VI p. 345 no. 11, RI p. 115 no. A3, Boilot no. 179.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 9 (21 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 110b-114a. Unique. Scan of the manuscript.

Other works by Abu Nasr ibn Iraq:
N13. Letter by Abu Nasr ibn Iraq to Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Ma'muni on the construction of the astrolabe in the way of the craftsmen risAla ... ilA abI `abdallAh mu.hammad ibn a.hmad al-ma'mUnI fI .san`at al-a.s.turlAb bi l-.tarIq al-.sinA`I. GAS VI p. 244 no. 5, RI p. 115 no. 299 no. A11.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 15 (19 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Spanish translation in Julio Samsó Estudios sobre Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Barcelona 1969 pp. 75-88, commentary pp. 46-4B.
Arabic manuscripts:
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Ahlwardt 5797 = Sprenger 1876, f. 8-12b. See Ahlwardt, catalogue vol. 5 p. 281. Digital version of the whole codex at https://ismi.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/digitalization/284999 (if the link does not work, copy the address and insert it in your browser)
Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 83b-86b. Scan of the manuscript.
Oxford Thurston 3, 122b-124a, and Oxford, Marsh 720, ff. 243b-246b

N14. On the proof of the truth of the question which was discussed between Abu Hamid al-Saghani and the astronomers of Rayy on which there was a difference of opinion, relating to the operations by the astrolabe. fI al-burhAn `alA .haqiqat al-mas'ala alatI waqa`at bayna abI .hAmid al-.saghAnI wa-bayna munajjimI al-rayy fIhA munAza`a wa-hiya min al-a`mAl bi-l-a.s.turlAb. GAS VI, p. 244-245 no. 10, RI p. 115-116 no. 299 no. A13.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 13 (9 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 78a-79b. Scan of the manuscript.

N15. On the disclosure of the errors of the Batiniyya (sect) by which they misrepresented in general the sighting of the lunar crescents. fI kashf `iwAr al-bA.tiniya bimA mawwahU `alA `Amatahum fI ru'yat al-ahillah.
Arabic edition: Tract no. 6 (14 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscript: Patna (India), Khuda Bakhsh library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), ff. 106b-109b. Scan of the manuscript.

N16. His revision of the Spherics of Menelaus. GAS V p. 339 no. 2, RI p. 114 no. 299 no. M1.
Arabic edition and German translation: Max Krause, Die Sphärik von Menelaus aus Alexandrien in der Verbesserung von Abu Nasr Mansur b. `Ali b. Iraq, Berlin 1936.
The small part (or separate treatise) in the Bankipore manuscript (See below) was printed as Tract no. 12 (19 pp.) in: Abu Nasr Mansur b. Ali b. Iraq, Rasa'il ila'l-Biruni, Hyderabad, Osmaniya Oriental Publications Bureau, 1376 H/1948 AD, Scan.
Arabic manuscripts:
The complete text in Leiden, Or.930.
A small par (or separate treatise) entitled On the correction of a proposition in the Book of Menelaus on Spherics, where the correctors of his book have misrepresented the proposition fI i.slA.h shakl min kitAb mAnAlAwUs fI l-kurriyAt `adala mu.salli.hU hAdhA l kitAb `an shaklihi, is in Ms. Patna, Khuda Bakhs library, Bankipore 2468 (now 2519), f. 75b-78a. Scan of these pages in the Bankipore manuscript.

N17. On the derivation of the (which?) eccentricity from the Shahi Almagest, Istikhraj ma bayna al-markazayn min al-majisti al-shahi. A fragment of a large work called al-majisti al-shahi, the Shah Almagest. Ms. London, India Office, 1270/2, see GAS VI, p. 244 no. 9, scan (Qatar digital library)

N18. A trigonometrical work by Abu Nasr has been preserved in letter C1 (by al-Biruni to al-Sijzi).

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H. Spurious works

Al-Saghani's Projection: jawAmi` ma`AnI kitAb abI .hAmid al-.sAghAnI fi l-ta.s.tI.h al-tAmm, Summaries of notions of the Book of Abu Hamid al-Saghani on the Perfect Projection. GAS VI, 270 no. 15. RI p. 147 no. M8.
Arabic manuscript: Leiden 123/2. This manuscript actually contains fragments of al-Biruni's work istI`Ab, see for precise references above, under the manuscripts of istI`Ab. It was considered to be a separate work on the grounds of the headings of one of the chapters, which contains a detailed description (by al-Biruni) of a projection method invented by the Iranian astronomer al-Saghani, who lived around 360 A.H./970 CE.

Summary of the Almagest, mulakhkha.s al-majis.tI. Boilot no. 144. This work is mentioned in DENA vol. 9, p. 1259 (pdf version p. 11393). Not mentioned in Al-Biruni's list of works.
Arabic manuscripts:
Meshed, Razawi s. 12297/1,
Shiraz, Milli, 440/2/6-h, 128 leaves.
According to the catalogue of the library in Meshed, the work was written by al-Khazemi al-Khwarizmi, not by al-Biruni. Therefore it has been classified here as spurious. However, the Shiraz manuscript still has to be consulted to decide the matter.

Recreation of souls and thoughts on the properties of three created things: minerals and plants and stones, kitAb Nuzhat al-nufUs wa al-afkAr fi khawA.s.s al-mawAlId al-thalAth al-ma`Adin wa-al-nabAt wa-al-a.hjAr. Boilot no. 157.
MS Oxford Bodleian Library I, 519.
In the Oxford manuscript, the work is attributed to "Abu al-Rayhan al-Khwarizmi." The work is very different in style from al-Biruni's works on mineralogy and pharmacy, and it cannot be a genuine work of al-Biruni because there is a reference in it (f. 91b of the Oxford ms) to the Nizamiyya Madrasa, which was founded in 1065 CE, after al-Biruni had died. "Abu al-Rayhan al-Khwarizmi" is cited on f. 117a of the Oxford ms. in relation to the Samanid ruler Nuh ibn Mansur.
See the article by Soraya Karimova, "Biruni's Apocryphal Threatise on Natural Sciences" in N. Pourjavadi, Z. Vesel, ed. Science, Techniques et Instruments dans le monde Iranien, Tehran 2004, pp. 333-338. The work is essentially a summary of the sections of masAlik al-ab.sAr wa-mamAlik al-am.sAr by Shihab al-Din A.hmad ibn Fa.dl Allah `Umari (14th century CE), dealing with plants and stones in Egypt and Syria.
DENA vol. 10, p. 662 (=p. 12070 in the pdf version) mentions two more manuscripts of this work in Tehran and Qom.

The decisive criterion in the use of the plane astrolabe, al-miqyAs al-murajja.h fI l-`amal bi-l-as.tur.Ab al-musa.t.t.a.h. RI 151 no. A14, King, Survey p. 48 under B 79.
Cairo, Tal`at mIqAt 155/1 fols. 1a-15a.
King, Survey, plates LVIb (p. 276) and LVII (p. 277) are parts of this manuscript, see the captions on p. 208.
That this treatise cannot be by al-Biruni was stated in GAS VI, p. 169 no. 22 and confirmed by D.A. King, Survey p. 48 no. B 79, and also D.A. King, The Origin of the astrolabe according to medieval Islamic sources, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 5 (1981), pp. 43-83, esp. p. 51-52 where it is explained that the treatise contains nonsense which al-Biruni would not have written.

On tangent circles, kitAb al-dawA'ir al-mutamAssa, GAS V, 381 no. 6, is a work by Ibrahim ibn Sinan, not al-Biruni. The error was caused by the displacement of leaves in the manuscript Bankipore 2468.

Discussions with Ibn Sina II. RI p. 156 no. PH2, see also under Ibn Sina RI p. 126 no. PH2.
These discussions consist of 10 additional questions to Ibn Sina and the answers by Ibn Sina.
Arabic edition with Turkish translation: Mübahat Türker Küyel, Ibn Sina "On Sorunun Karsiliklari" ni Beyruni icin mi Yazmistir? Beyrunî'ye armagan, Ankara 1974, pp. 83-126, see pdf. Arabic text on pp. 95-112 and French discussions on pp. 89-94 (Les reponses a dix questions d'Avicenne sont-elles écrites pour Al-Bironi?"); French summary of the answers to the ten questions on pp. 119-126. According to the (in my opinion plausible) arguments of Mübahat Türker Küyer, the ten questions have been misattributed to al-Biruni. These questions are very "philosophical," of a kind which may not have been interesting to al-Biruni.
Manuscripts:
Istanbul, Aya Sofia 4853, 13b-18a. Note that these pages are followed in the manuscript Aya Sofia 4853 by the text of the "genuine" questions by al-Biruni and their answers by Ibn Sina (this is the cause of the misattribution)
Many other manuscripts are mentioned in the edition of Mübahat Türker Küyel.
Pdf of a manuscript in Patna (India), compiled on the basis of the pages that were downloaded from the old website www.ziedan.com, no longer active.


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Jan Hogendijk <J.P.Hogendijk at gmail.com>
2019